SARMs: een nieuw gezondheidsprobleem in fitness en bodybuilding

29 Nov 2021

SARMs : een nieuw gezondheidsprobleem in fitness en
bodybuilding / Willem Koert, Mariël Zwaagstra, Patricia Nagtegaal, Leendert van der Kooij, Koen Terlouw, Erik Duiven

  • TSG - Tijdschrift voor gezondheidswetenschappen 99 (2021); p. 161-164


Samenvatting

In het Nederlandse fitness- en sportschoolmilieu wint een nieuwe groep dopingmiddelen snel aan populariteit. In het jargon van de sporters in dit circuit heten ze SARMs, een afkorting voor Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators. SARMs zijn experimentele middelen die spiergroei en vetverlies moeten bewerkstelligen, die nog in de ontwikkelingsfase zijn, nog niet zijn goedgekeurd voor gebruik door artsen, maar al wel vrijelijk verkrijgbaar zijn via webwinkels. SARMs zijn verboden in de sport en staan op de dopinglijst. De farmabedrijven die deze stoffen hebben ontwikkeld, hebben in een aantal gevallen hun trials stopgezet nadat er zorgwekkende bijwerkingen aan het licht kwamen. Desondanks bieden wereldwijd honderden webwinkels deze experimentele middelen aan, en vertellen diverse ‘experts’ op sociale media dat SARMs volstrekt veilig zijn. De verkrijgbaarheid van deze middelen geeft aanleiding tot zorg.


Abstract

In the Dutch fitness and bodybuilding scene, a new group of doping substances is rapidly gaining popularity. In the lingo of the athletes in this circuit, they are called SARMs, short for Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators. SARMs are experimental drugs to achieve muscle growth and fat loss, which are still in the development phase, have not yet been approved for medical use, but are already freely available in web shops. In a number of cases, the pharmaceutical companies that developed these substances have stopped their trials after worrying side effects came to light. Nevertheless, hundreds of online stores worldwide offer these experimental drugs. In addition, various ‘experts’ on social media claim SARMs are completely safe. The availability of these resources is a cause for concern.

Risk profile of male college athletes who use performance-enhancing substances

3 Jan 2015

Risk profile of male college athletes who use performance-enhancing substances / Jennifer F. Buckman, David A. Yusko, Helene R. White, Robert J. Pandina

  • Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 70 (2009) 6; p. 919–923
  • PMID: 19895768
  • PMCID: PMC2776121
  • DOI: 10.15288/jsad.2009.70.919


Abstract

Objective: There is a general perception that use of performance-enhancing substances (PESs) does not fit the standard profile of substance use. This study sought to determine whether users of PESs report high-risk patterns of alcohol and other drug use and demonstrate risk behaviors associated with problematic substance use.

Method: Anonymous self-report questionnaires were administered to a sample of 234 male student athletes. PES users were defined as college athletes who reported past-year use of a broad array of PESs (including stimulants, hormone precursors, and nutritional supplements).

Results: Male athlete PES users (n = 73) compared with nonusers (n = 160) reported more problematic alcohol-use behaviors and more alcohol- and drug-use-related problems. The former compared with the latter was also more likely to report past-year use of tobacco products, marijuana, cocaine, psychedelics, and prescription drugs without a prescription. In addition, PES users demonstrated higher sensation seeking, and greater coping and enhancement motivations for drinking and marijuana use than non-PES users.

Conclusions: Although banned PESs are not typically viewed as having a high addiction potential, male athletes who use these drugs may be more likely to participate in other problematic substance-use behaviors. Importantly, the male athletes in this study who reported PES use also participated in substance-use behaviors that can have profound negative effects on athletic performance. More research on the use of PESs in college athletes is needed.

Australian athletes' knowledge of the WADA Prohibited Substances List and performance enhancing substances

15 Mar 2018

Australian athletes' knowledge of the WADA Prohibited Substances List and performance enhancing substances / Rhonda Orr, Matthew Grassmayr, Rona Macniven, Anne Grunseit, Mark Halaki, Adrian Bauman

  • International Journal of Drug Policy 56 (June 2018); p. 45-45
  • PMID: 29550541
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2018.02.025


Abstract

Background: This study investigated athlete knowledge of the World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited Substances List and the effects of four well-known performance enhancing substances (PES).

Methods: A sample of 1925 elite and sub-elite athletes (mean age 20.6 years) completed a questionnaire about the banned status of 30 substances/methods and their knowledge of the effects of amphetamines, anabolic steroids, growth hormone and erythropoietin.

Results: Athletes showed limited understanding of the WADA Prohibited Substances List, scoring 32.2% correct, 36.3% incorrect, and 31.4% indicated they did not know the status of 30 substances. Responses of >50% correct were given for only eight substances/method: anabolic steroids, amphetamines, blood doping, erythropoietin, caffeine, vitamins/minerals, protein powders and iron. Athletes demonstrated moderate knowledge of the desired effects of the four PES (49% correct), but poor knowledge of their adverse effects (29% correct). Age, sex, ethnicity, professional/amateur status, and current competition level were significant predictors of the number of correct responses (r2 = 0.16, p < 0.05). Athletes most likely to provide correct responses were male, 19-22 year-olds, Caucasian, professional and international representatives.

Conclusion: This comprehensive study of anti-doping demonstrated that Australian athletes had limited knowledge of a wide range of substances and PES. Better targeted drug education towards younger and non-professional athletes and evaluation of current anti-doping programs are warranted.

Exploring the Progressive Use of Performance Enhancing Substances by High-Performance Athletes

9 Jan 2020

Exploring the Progressive Use of Performance Enhancing Substances by High-Performance Athletes / Aaron C.T. Smith, Constantino Stavros

  • Substance Use & Misuse 55 (2020) 6 (9 January); p. 914-927)
  • PMID: 31918609
  • DOI: 10.1080/10826084.2019.1711412


Abstract

Background:

Given implications associated with the use of performance-enhancing substances (PESs), stakeholders must remain informed about usage precipitants and anticipate conditions signaling athlete vulnerability to hazardous exposures.

Objectives:

To gain deeper qualitative insight into high-level athlete PES usage; explore the variables leading them to escalate their PES use regimens; reveal PES experiences during their careers and, unlike other studies, not to focus exclusively on "doping" as measured by the use of WADA-banned substances.

Methods:

A macro life course-based framework from which the data could emerge through a thematic coding analysis was utilized. Sixteen narrative life course histories of recently retired high-performance athletes report on the factors impelling their escalation in PES use, including for some, the first use of banned PES.

Results:

Informant reports, thematically coded, reveal performance maximization urgency to be a central factor in escalating PES use, driven by four variables: Requirements, Opportunities, Influencers and Outcomes. These variables each comprise two key components that stimulate an urgency ecosystem affecting an athlete's proximity to an escalation threshold.

Conclusions/Importance:

Such a comprehensive investigation of PES use precipitants has not previously been undertaken. Advances in PES use were instantiated by a substantive, sometimes radical and often sudden increase in urgency to improve performance related to output requirements, specific demands, knowledge and access, timing windows, the competitive landscape, loyalty to coaches, efficiency expectations and likelihood of detection. This study informs incremental models of doping, the use of which is encouraged in order to analyze life course narratives to better understand athlete behaviors.

The effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids on DNA damage in bodybuilders' blood lymphocytes

16 Sep 2021

The effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids on DNA damage in bodybuilders' blood lymphocytes / Abbasali Abbasnezhad, Miad Mahdavi, Mojtaba Kianmehr, Mohamad Ghorbani, Mahmoud Reza Motaghy, Mohammad Sohrabi, Jafar Hajavi

  • Biomarkers 26 (2021) 8 (December); p. 685-690
  • PMID: 34472401
  • DOI: 10.1080/1354750X.2021.1976837


Abstract

Background: Nowadays bodybuilders use anabolic steroids frequently. Abuse of these substances can cause significant side effects; therefore, we aim to investigate the effect of anabolic steroids on DNA damage in bodybuilders' blood lymphocytes.

Methods and materials: This case-control study was performed on 36 male bodybuilders in Gonabad. The case group included bodybuilders with a history of taking anabolic-androgenic steroids (n = 18), and the control group composed of bodybuilders who did not use anabolic-androgenic steroids (n = 18). Intravenous blood samples were obtained and then the lymphocytes, cells and electrophoresis of blood were extracted. Afterward, the coloured slides and DNA damage were measured using a fluorescent microscope and CometScore software. The DNA damage was compared using t-tests .

Results: Results showed that there was no significant difference between age, marital status, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the case and control group. However, parameters related to the DNA damage including tail length, percent tail DNA, and tail moment were significantly higher in the case group.

Conclusion: The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids increases DNA damage in the bodybuilders' blood lymphocytes.

Residues of veterinary drugs and heavy metals in bovine meat from Urabá (Antioquia, Colombia), a promising step forward towards international commercialization

4 Aug 2021

Residues of veterinary drugs and heavy metals in bovine meat from Urabá (Antioquia, Colombia), a promising step forward towards international commercialization / Diego Alonso Restrepo Molina, Jairo Humberto López Vargas, Jesús Alfredo Berdugo Gutierrez, Andrés Gallo-Ortiz, Yudy Duarte-Correa

  • Veterinary and Animal Science 13 (September 2021); 100192
  • PMID: 34409195
  • PMCID: PMC8363876
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.vas.2021.100192


Abstract

Veterinary drugs are used for disease control in bovines. Their presence at acceptable levels is a cause of concern for consumers and control agencies, as well as being a limitation for accessing international markets. The objective of this research was to evaluate the presence of residues of veterinary drugs and heavy metals in meat cuts from the Urabá region in Colombia. From a total of 80 samples of meat cuts from the loin and neck, we determined the presence of 29 veterinary drug residues and of cadmium and lead. The drug residues were quantified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Heavy metals were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption. As a result, all evaluated samples complied with Colombian and European regulations for drug residues and heavy metals. These results demonstrate good veterinary practices used for bovines raised in this part of Colombia, and they represent an export opportunity and an opening for new markets that can be enhanced by the implementation of a meat quality seal from this region.

Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing - [2020-2021]

17 Nov 2021

Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing / Mario Thevis, Tiia Kuuranne, Hans Geyer

  • Drug Testing and Analysis 13 (2021) 17 November
  • PMID: 34788500
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.3199


Contents:

  • Introduction
  • Anabolic Agent
    • Anabolic-androgenic steroids
    • Initial testing procedures: Comprehensive screening, metabolism studies
    • Steroid profiling in urine and serum
    • Confirmatory testing procedures – IRMS
    • Other anabolic agents
  • Peptide Hormones, Growth Factors, Related Substances, and Mimetics
    • Erythropoietin-receptor agonists and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activating agents
    • Growth hormone, its fragments and releasing factors, chorionic gonadotrophin and luteinizing hormone (LH)
  • β2‐Agonists
  • Hormone and Metabolic Modulators
  • Diuretics and other Masking Agents, Stimulants
  • Glucocorticoids and cannabinoids
  • Manipulation of blood and blood components
  • Gene Doping
  • Conclusion


Abstract

Most core areas of anti-doping research exploit and rely on analytical chemistry, applied to studies aiming at further improving the test methods' analytical sensitivity, the assays' comprehensiveness, the interpretation of metabolic profiles and patterns, but also at facilitating the differentiation of natural/endogenous substances from structurally identical but synthetically derived compounds and comprehending the athlete's exposome. Further, a continuously growing number of advantages of complementary matrices such as dried blood spots have been identified and transferred from research to sports drug testing routine applications, with an overall gain of valuable additions to the anti-doping field. In this edition of the annual banned-substance review, literature on recent developments in anti-doping published between October 2020 and September 2021 is summarized and discussed, particularly focusing on human doping controls and potential applications of new testing strategies to substances and methods of doping specified in the World Anti-Doping Agency's 2021 Prohibited List. 

Screening for performance enhancing substances and quantification of ethanol in different Arishta manufactured in Sri Lanka

31 Dec 2020

Screening for performance enhancing substances and quantification of ethanol in different Arishta manufactured in Sri Lanka / Punchividanelage Nilu Jayashika Fernando, Shehani Pigera, Suraweera Arachchilage Nimesha Rashani, Ravindra Fernando, Pabasara Weerasinghe, Tharaka Deepal Godakumbura, Madunil Anuk Niriella, Seevali Jayawickreme, Arjuna Priyadarshana de Silva

  • Ceylon Medical Journal 65 (2020) 4 (31 December); p. 112-117
  • PMID: 34825559
  • DOI: 10.4038/cmj.v65i4.9282


Abstract

Background: Arishta have been used in Ayurveda medicine for over thousands of years in Sri Lanka to treat various diseases. Ashwagandharishta, Balarishta and Dashamoolarishta are usually prescribed to obtain an anabolic effect, and Ashwagandharishta and Dashamoolarishta for androgenic effect in males. Thus, these arishta have been shown to have similar effect as anabolic androgenic steroids and stimulants in Western medicine. Therefore, arishta could potentially be used by athletes to improve their performance in sports leading to unintentional doping. Additionally, ethanol develops in-source during arista fermentation, which can affect athletes health.

Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate whether the anabolic androgenic steroids or stimulants banned by World Anti-Doping Agency are present in these arishta, and to determine their ethanol content.

Methods: Methanol extractions of Ashwagandarishta, Balarishta, Dashamoolarishta from four different manufacturers were screened for 21 stimulant and 22 anabolic androgenic steroids banned by World Anti-Doping Agency, using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer. Ethanol content of the twelve Arishta samples were also measured.

Results: Anabolic androgenic steroids or stimulants were not present in the tested Arishta samples, and percentage volume / volume ethanol content of all Arishta was between (5.80-8.35) ±0.5.

Conclusion: The tested brands of Ashwagandharishta, Balarishta and Dashamoolarishta did not contain stimulants or anabolic androgenic steroids banned by World Anti-Doping Agency.

Amphetamine-like Neurochemical and Cardiovascular Effects of α-Ethylphenethylamine Analogs Found in Dietary Supplements

20 Oct 2020

Amphetamine-like Neurochemical and Cardiovascular Effects of α-Ethylphenethylamine Analogs Found in Dietary Supplements / Charles W. Schindler, Eric B. Thorndike, John S. Partilla, Kenner C. Rice, Michael H. Baumann

  • Journal of Pharmacology and Expermimental Therapeutics 376 (2021) 1 (January); p. 118-126)
  • PMID: 33082158
  • PMCID: PMC7788351
  • DOI: 10.1124/jpet.120.000129


Abstract

Dietary supplements often contain additives not listed on the label, including α-ethyl homologs of amphetamine such as N,α-diethylphenethylamine (DEPEA). Here, we examined the neurochemical and cardiovascular effects of α-ethylphenethylamine (AEPEA), N-methyl-α-ethylphenethylamine (MEPEA), and DEPEA as compared with the effects of amphetamine. All drugs were tested in vitro using uptake inhibition and release assays for monoamine transporters. As expected, amphetamine acted as a potent and efficacious releasing agent at dopamine transporters (DAT) and norepinephrine transporters (NET) in vitro. AEPEA and MEPEA were also releasers at catecholamine transporters, with greater potency at NET than DAT. DEPEA displayed fully efficacious release at NET but weak partial release at DAT (i.e., 40% of maximal effect). In freely moving, conscious male rats fitted with biotelemetry transmitters for physiologic monitoring, amphetamine (0.1-3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) produced robust dose-related increases in blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and motor activity. AEPEA (1-10 mg/kg, s.c.) produced significant increases in BP but not HR or activity, whereas DEPEA and MEPEA (1-10 mg/kg, s.c.) increased BP, HR, and activity. In general, the phenethylamine analogs were approximately 10-fold less potent than amphetamine. Our results show that α-ethylphenethylamine analogs are biologically active. Although less potent than amphetamine, they produce cardiovascular effects that could pose risks to humans. Given that MEPEA and DEPEA increased locomotor activity, these substances may also have significant abuse potential.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The α-ethyl homologs of amphetamine have significant cardiovascular, behavioral, and neurochemical effects in rats. Given that these compounds are often not listed on the ingredient labels of dietary supplements, these compounds could pose a risk to humans using these products.

Ego orientation is related to doping likelihood via sport supplement use and sport supplement beliefs

12 Nov 2021

Ego orientation is related to doping likelihood via sport supplement use and sport supplement beliefs / Philip Hurst , Christopher Ring, Maria Kavussanu

  • European Journal of Sport Science (2021) 12 November); p. 1-9
  • PMID: 34663189
  • DOI: 10.1080/17461391.2021.1995509


Abstract

Growing body of evidence suggests sport supplement use is positively related to doping likelihood, both directly and indirectly via beliefs that sport supplements are effective for improving performance. However, it is unclear what leads an athlete to use sport supplements and whether such factors play a role in the supplement-beliefs-doping relationship. To address this issue, we examined whether motivational goal orientations were related to doping likelihood directly and indirectly via sport supplement use and sport supplement beliefs. Competitive athletes (N = 362, 39% female, mean ± SD; age = 23.6 ± 10.3 years, hours per week training = 5.8 ± 2.1, years competing = 5.8 ± 5.4) from a range of sports (e.g. athletics, soccer, weightlifting) completed an online survey measuring task and ego goal orientation, sport supplement use, sport supplement beliefs, and doping likelihood. Results indicated that ego orientation, but not task orientation, was indirectly related to doping likelihood via sport supplement use and sport supplement beliefs. This suggests that athletes who are ego oriented are more likely to use supplements, believe supplements are effective, and dope. These data suggest that researchers should consider ego goal orientations when interpreting relationships between sport supplement use and doping likelihood.

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