ITF 2020 ITF vs Dayana Yastremska

21 Jun 2021

In December 2020 the International Tennis Federation (ITF) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Ukrainian tennis player Dayana Yastremska after her A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substance Mesterolone in a low concentration. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete filed a statement in her defence and she was heard for the ITF Independent Tribunal.

The Athlete admitted the violation, accepted the test results and denied the intentional use of the substance. She asserted with evidence and witness statements that the postitve test was the result of contamination through person-to-person transfer.

At the relevant time she had close physical contact with her boy friend whereas she was unaware that he had used Mesteronolone. The Athlete's boy friend testified that he had ingested Mesteronolone tablets when he had close physical contact with the Athlete shortly before she had out-of-competiton Doping Control.

The ITF contended that the Athlete intentionally had used the prohibited substance and it rejected the Athlete's explanation on how the substance had entered her system.

The Panel considered the evidence in this case and accepts the Athlete's explanation, her corroborating evidence and the testimonies of the expert witnesses. The Panel is satisfied, on the balance of probabilities, that the Athlete has established the source of the prohibited substance.

Therefore the Panel deems on 21 June 2021 that No Fault or Negligence has been established and that no period of ineligibility shall be imposed on the Athlete.

WR 2019 WR vs José Ramon Piña

16 Nov 2020

In August 2019 World Rugby (WR) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Venezuelan rugby player José Ramon Piña after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substances 19-norandrosterone (Nandrolone), Etiocholanolone and Testosterone including its adiols.

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete filed a statement in his defence and the World Rugby Independent Judicial Committee rendered a decision based on the parties' written submissions. The Athlete admitted the violation and stated that he had intentionally used the substances to recover from an injury.

The Committee finds that the presence of the prohibited substances has been established and accordingly that he intentionally had committed the anti-doping rule violation.

Therefore the Judicial Committee decides on 16 November 2020 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provional suspension, i.e. on 13 August 2010.

WADA - Independent Observers Report Tour de France 2010

30 Aug 2010

Independent Observer Report : Tour de France 2010 / Independent Observer Team. - Montreal : World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), 2010

WADA - Independent Observers Report Tour de France 2003

30 Aug 2003

Independent Observer Report : Tour de France 2003 / Independent Observer Team. - Montreal : World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), 2003

WADA - Independent Observers Report World Games 2009

30 Aug 2009

Report of the Independent Observers : the 8th World Games, Kaohsiung, July 2009 / Independent Observer Team. - Montreal : World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), 2009

WADA - Independent Observers Report African Games 2019

27 Feb 2020

WADA Independent Observer Report African Games, 2019, Rabat, Morocco / Independent Observer Team. - Montreal : World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), 2019

Phytosterols and anabolic agents versus designer drugs

21 Jul 2006

Phytosterols and anabolic agents versus designer drugs / H.F. De Brabander, K. Verheyden, V. Mortier, B. Le Bizec, W. Verbeke, D. Courtheyn, H. Noppe. - (Analytica Chimica Acta 586 (2007) 1-2 (14 March); p. 49-56)

  • PMID: 17386696
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2006.07.031


Abstract

Cholesterol is a well-known component in fats of animal origin and it also is the precursor of natural hormones. Phytosterols appear in plants and only differ slightly in structure from cholesterol. An important difference however is the low absorption in the gut of phytosterols and their saturated derivatives, the phytostanols. As a result, there is time for all kind of reactions in faecal material inside and outside of the gut. Determination of the abuse of natural hormones may be based on gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Abuse of natural hormones changes the 13C/12C ratio of some metabolites during a relatively long time. The formation of (natural) hormones in the gut may interfere with this method. Designer drugs are mainly known from sports doping. In animal fattening, designer drugs may be used as well. Small changes in the structure of (natural) hormones may lead to a new group of substances asking for new strategies for their detection and the constatation of their abuse.

Phytosterol consumption and the anabolic steroid boldenone in humans: a hypothesis piloted

20 Jun 2007

Phytosterol consumption and the anabolic steroid boldenone in humans: a hypothesis piloted / M.M. Ros, S.S. Sterk, H. Verhagen, A.F.H. Stalenhoef, N. de Jong. - (Food Additives & Contaminants 24 (2007) 7 (July); p. 679-684)

  • PMID: 17613052
  • DOI: 10.1080/02652030701216727


Abstract

The presence of the anabolic steroid boldenone in animals has become a research topic as its occurrence is proposed to be a marker for illegal hormone administration. However, boldenone can also be formed from beta-sitosterol, a phytosterol present in animal feed, as well as from endogenous sources. The observations in animals together with the increased consumption of phytosterol-enriched foods in the Western population led the authors to the hypothesis that consumption of phytosterol-enriched foods might possibly lead to increased boldenone levels in humans. The authors performed a pilot study among female volunteers (n = 10) to investigate whether boldenone concentrations in urine were detectable after consumption of 25 g day(-1) of phytosterol-enriched margarines for 1 week. Urine samples were collected at days 0, 3 or 4, and 7. Urine of a sitosterolemia (a rare autosomal recessively inherited lipid metabolic disorder) patient was collected as a positive control case. No traces of boldenone were detected in either the volunteers or in the patient. In conclusion, there is no evidence of formation of boldenone in women after consumption of the recommended amount of phytosterol-enriched margarines.

Schemes of metabolic patterns of anabolic androgenic steroids for the estimation of metabolites of designer steroids in human urine

4 Mar 2009

Schemes of metabolic patterns of anabolic androgenic steroids for the estimation of metabolites of designer steroids in human urine / A.G. Fragkaki, Y.S Angelis, A. Tsantili-Kakoulidou, M. Koupparis, C. Georgakopoulos. - (The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 115 (2009) 1-2 (May); p. 44-61)

  • PMID: 19429460
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2009.02.016


Abstract

Unified metabolism schemes of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in human urine based on structure classification of parent molecules are presented in this paper. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to AAS molecules referred in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list of prohibited substances, resulting to their classification into six distinct groups related to structure features where metabolic alterations usually occur. The metabolites of the steroids participating to these six groups were treated using the Excel(c) classification filters showing that common metabolism routes are derived for each of the above PCA classes, leading to the proposed metabolism schemes of the present study. This rule-based approach is proposed for the prediction of the metabolism of unknown, chemically modified steroids, otherwise named as designer steroids. The metabolites of three known, in the literature, AAS are estimated using the proposed metabolism schemes, confirming that their use could be a useful tool for the prediction of metabolic pathways of unknown AAS.

Structure characterisation of urinary metabolites of the cannabimimetic JWH-018 using chemically synthesised reference material for the support of LC-MS/MS-based drug testing

1 Apr 2011

Structure characterisation of urinary metabolites of the cannabimimetic JWH-018 using chemically synthesised reference material for the support of LC-MS/MS-based drug testing / Simon Beuck, Ines Möller, Andreas Thomas, Annika Klose, Nils Schlörer, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis. - (Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 401 (2011) 2 (August); p. 493-505)

  • PMID: 21455647
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00216-011-4931-5


Abstract

As recently reported, the synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 is the subject of extensive phase I and II metabolic reactions in vivo. Since these studies were based on LC-MS/MS and/or GC-MS identification and characterisation of analytes, the explicit structural assignment of the metabolites was only of preliminary nature, if possible at all. Here, we report the chemical synthesis of five potential in vivo metabolites of JWH-018 derivatives featuring an alkylcarboxy (M1), a terminal alkylhydroxy (M2), a 5-indolehydroxy (M3), an N-dealkylated 5-indolehydroxy (M4) and a 2'-naphthylhydroxy (5) analogue, respectively, and their characterisation by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The collision-induced dissociation (CID) patterns of the protonated compounds were studied by high-resolution/high-accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (MS( n )) applying an LTQ Orbitrap with direct infusion and electrospray ionisation of target analytes. An unusual dissociation behaviour including a reversible ion-molecule reaction between a naphthalene cation (m/z 127) and water in the gas phase of the MS was shown to be responsible for nominal neutral losses of 10 u in the course of the CID pathway. LC-MS/MS-supported comparison of synthesised reference standards with an authentic urine sample using an API 4000 QTrap mass spectrometer identified the synthetic JWH-018 analogues M1-M4 as true in vivo metabolites, presuming a chromatographic separation of potentially present regioisomeric analogues. Existing doping control methods were expanded and validated according to international guidelines in order to allow for the detection of the carboxy and the alkylhydroxy metabolites, respectively, as urinary markers for the illegal intake of the synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018. Both metabolites were quantified in authentic doping control urine samples that had been suspicious of JWH-018 abuse after routine screening procedures, and a stable isotope-labelled (13)C(8)-(15)N-carboxy metabolite was synthesised for future analytical applications.

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