DIS 2014 NADA vs Marcin B.

4 Jun 2015

In 2014 the National Anti Doping Agency of Germany has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete Marcin B. for his 3 whereabouts filing failures within an 18 month period. The case was settled by the Tribunal of the German Institution of Arbitration (DIS).

The Athlete explained that he don't speak German and that he had lived in Germany without money and without any support. He could not respond to the communications from NADA and the German Athletics Association since he had not someone available to translate their letters.

The Tribunal finds that the Athlete over the months at least could have tried to learn the language or to find assistance in order to send a reply that he had a language problem. Considering the Athlete's circumstances in this case and the fact that his whereabouts filing failures occurred in the first quarter of 2014 when he was not residing in Germany the Tribunal finds that there are grounds for a small reduction of the sanction .

Therefore the DIS Tribunal decides on 4 June 2015 to impose a 1 year and 9 month period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the decision, i.e. on 4 June 2015.

DIS 2014 NADA vs Jendrick S.

2 Feb 2015

In January 2014 the German Baseball and Softball Federation (DBV) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the baseball player Jendrick S. for Tampering after the Cologne Lab reported the presence of artificial urine in the Athlete’s A and B samples provided on 10 December 2013.

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete filed a statement in his defence. The case was settled by the the German Institution of Arbitration (DIS) based on the written submissions of the parties.

The Athlete denied the violation and claimed that his samples in the BEREG-Kits bottles were manipulated by someone else because they were not properly closed and he pointed to some other irregularities.

Considering the evidence in this case the Tribunal established that the Athlete’s BEREG-Kits were validly closed by the Athlete himself during the Doping Control and that the Athlete had signed the Doping Control Form confirming that the bottles were closed in accordance with the regulations. There was no evidence that the Doping Control Form in question was altered and when the BEREG-Kits bottles were validly closed they could not be manipulated anymore until their arrival and opening in the Cologne Lab. Both the Athlete and the Doping Control Officer (DCO) confirmed that only the DCO stood behind the Athlete when he provided the sample and that no one else could have manipulated the Athlete’s sample.

The Tribunal concludes that the Athlete had tampered with the sample collection and accordingly that he committed an anti-doping rule violation. Therefore the DIS Tribunal decides on 2 February 2015 to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 14 January 2014.

DIS 2013 DOKR vs David W.

10 Jan 2014

In 2013 the German Olympic Committee for Equestrian Sports (DOKR) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the rider David W. after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substances Cathine and Pseudoephedrine.

The case was settled by the Tribunal of the German Institution of Arbitration (DIS) based on the written submission of the parties.

The Athlete denied the intentional use of the substances and explained with medical evidence that he had used prescribed over-the-counter medication as treatment for his hay fever while he was unaware that it contained the prohibited substances.

The Tribunal considers the Athlete's degree of fault in this case, that he was unaware of the Rules and cooperated with the proceedings.
Therefore the DIS Tribunal decides on 10 January 2014 to impose only a warning on the Athlete.

DIS 2013 NADA vs Erik I.

26 Jul 2013

In November 2013 the International Cycling Union has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the cyclist Erik I. after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substances Cannabis and Cocaine. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the results managment went to the National Anti Doping Agency of Germany.
The Athlete filed a statement in his defence and he was heard for the Tribunal of the German Institution of Arbitration (DIS).

The Athlete admitted the violation and testified that at a party the evening before the competition in question he had consumed too much alcohol and heavily drunk he had smoked Cannabis and apparently also had used Cocaine. He could not explain how the Cocaine exactly had entered his system. At that time he coped with the lifethreatening illness of his grandfather who died later in November 2012.

NADA accepted that the violation was not intentional but contended that the Athlete could not explain how the Cocaine came into his system. Because WADA in May 2013 had raised the threshold for Cannabis concentration up to 150 ng/mL NADA therefore applied the principle of lex mitior and withdrew the anti-doping rule violation charge for Cannabis.

The Tribunal concludes that the Athlete was heavily drunk when he used the substances and that this occurred out-of-competition in a context unrelated to sport performance. Also the Tribunal considers that Athlete was coping with the illness of his grandfather at that time. Because the Athlete could not indicate how the Cocaine had entered his system under the Rules there is no further reduction possible of the sanction.

Therefore the DIS Tribunal decides on 26 July 2013 to impose a 1 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 1 November 2012.

Sudden unexpected death in a female fitness athlete, with a possible connection to the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) and ephedrine

24 Dec 2008

Sudden unexpected death in a female fitness athlete, with a possible connection to the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) and ephedrine / I. Thiblin, H. Mobini-Far, M. Frisk. - (Forensic Science International 184 (20089) 1-3 (30 January; p. 7-11).
- PMID: 19110387.
- DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2008.11.004


Abstract

The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with different adverse effects, some of which potentially lethal. Most users of AAS are male, but the prevalence of such use appears to be increasing in females. Here we present a sudden unexpected death in a female fitness athlete with a possible connection to use of doping agents.

Prevalence of therapeutic use exemptions at the Olympic Games and association with medals: an analysis of data from 2010 to 2018

6 May 2020

Prevalence of therapeutic use exemptions at the Olympic Games and association with medals : an analysis of data from 2010 to 2018 / Alan Vernec, David Healy. - (British Journal of Sports Medicine (2020) 102028 (6 May); p. 1-6).
- PMID: 32376674.
- DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2020-102028


Abstract

Objectives: The percentage of athletes with Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUEs) competing in elite sport and the association with winning medals has been a matter of speculation in the absence of validated competitor numbers. We used International Olympic Committee (IOC) and World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) data to identify athletes competing with TUEs at five Olympic Games (Games) and a possible association between having a TUE and winning an Olympic medal.

Methods: We used the IOC's competition results and WADA's TUE database to identify the number of TUEs for athlete competitions (ACs, defined as one athlete competing in one event) and any associations with medals among athletes competing in individual competitions. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for the probability of winning a medal among athletes with a TUE compared with that of athletes without a TUE. We also reported adjusted RR (RRadj) controlling for country resources, which is a potential confounder.

Results: During the Games from 2010 to 2018, there were 20 139 ACs and 2062 medals awarded. Athletes competed with a TUE in 0.9% (181/20 139) of ACs. There were 21/2062 medals won by athletes with a TUE. The RR for winning a medal with a TUE was 1.13 (95% CI: 0.73 to 1.65; p=0.54), and the RRadj was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.69 to 1.56; p=0.73).

Conclusion: The number of athletes competing with valid TUEs at Games is <1%. Our results suggested that there is no meaningful association between being granted a TUE and the likelihood of winning a medal.

Content versus Label Claims in Cannabidiol (CBD)-Containing Products Obtained from Commercial Outlets in the State of Mississippi

20 May 2020

Content versus Label Claims in Cannabidiol (CBD)-Containing Products Obtained from Commercial Outlets in the State of Mississippi / Bill J. Gurley, Timothy P. Murphy, Waseem Gul, Larry A. Walker, Mahmoud ElSohly. - (Journal of Dietary Supplements (2020) 20 May; p. 1-9).
- https://doi.org/10.1080/19390211.2020.1766634


Abstract

Products containing cannabidiol (CBD) are now available throughout the United States, but their quality is oftentimes questionable. The CBD and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of 25 commercially available hemp oil products, obtained throughout the state of Mississippi, was determined via gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID). These products were also analyzed for the presence of synthetic cannabinoids using full scan gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Analytical findings were compared to label claims for CBD content. Product label claims for CBD ranged from no claim to 500 mg per serving; however, marked variability was observed between actual CBD content and claimed quantities. Of the 25 products, only three were within ±20% of label claim. Fifteen were well below the stated claim for CBD; two exceed claims in excess of 50%; and 5 made no claims. In addition, THC content for three products exceeded the 0.3% legal limit. Furthermore, four products—primarily marketed for vaping—were adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids. From this small, but diverse, sampling of hemp-derived merchandise, it appears that most product label claims do not accurately reflect actual CBD content and are fraudulent in that regard. Moreover, products that exceed legal THC levels may jeopardize a consumer’s employment status (i.e. failed “drug test”), while those adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids may subject them to serious adverse health effects. These findings argue strongly for further development of current good manufacturing practices for CBD-containing products and their stringent enforcement.

Chronic Users of Supraphysiological Doses of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Develop Hematological and Serum Lipoprotein Profiles That Are Characteristic of High Cardiovascular Risk

1 Jul 2011

Chronic Users of Supraphysiological Doses of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Develop Hematological and Serum Lipoprotein Profiles That Are Characteristic of High Cardiovascular Risk / Alex Souto Maior, Carlos Belchior, Rogério Costa Sanches, Tiago Oliveira da Silva, Tomás Leonelli, Paulo Adriano Schwingel, Roberto Simão, Moacir Marocolo, José Hamilton Matheus Nascimento. - (International Journal of Sport and Exercise Science 3 (2011) 2 (July 1); p. 27-36)


Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use on the hematological and lipoprotein profile of young men practicing sports at fitness centers. Twenty-two male subjects were divided in two groups: AAS (n = 11; 27.3 ± 4.5 years; 85.1 ± 6.8 kg; 174 ± 5.5 cm) and control (n = 11; 24.7 ± 3.6 years; 81.7 ± 7.6 kg; 178.5 ± 6.5 cm). The hemodynamic response, metabolic profile (blood glucose and lactate) and serum lipoprotein levels were measured prior to, during, and after a submaximal exercise test on a cycloergometer. Blood samples were obtained before the exercise test to determine the hematological profile (white and red cells). The hemodynamic response showed no statistically difference between groups before, during, or after submaximal exercise test. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocytes, leucocytes and monocytes were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in AAS users compared to control subjects. HDL-cholesterol level was significantly lower, whereas triglycerides levels, LDL-cholesterol level and the LDL-c/HDL-c ratio were significantly higher in the AAS group. Blood glucose and lactate levels were significantly higher in the AAS users after submaximal exercise test. In conclusion, young men practicing sports at fitness centers who are AAS users exhibit proatherogenic and prothrombotic profile, and premature metabolic disturb in despite of regular physical activity.

Cheater, Cheater, Pumpkin Eater: The Dark Triad, Attitudes towards Doping, and Cheating Behavior among Athletes

21 Nov 2019

Cheater, Cheater, Pumpkin Eater : The Dark Triad, Attitudes towards Doping, and Cheating Behavior among Athletes / Adam R. Nicholls, Daniel J. Madigan, Lindsay Duncan, Laura Hallward, Lambros Lazuras, Kevin Bingham, Lucas R.W. Fairs. - (European Journal of Sport Science (2019) 21 November); p. 1-7).
- DOI: 10.1080/17461391.2019.1694079
- PMID: 31726949


Abstract

We examined the relationships between the Dark Triad personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy), attitudes towards doping, and cheating behaviour among athletes. One-hundred and sixty-four athletes completed a completed a matrix solving task within a specific time limit. Participants were told they would receive a financial reward for the total number matrices they could solve, but only 13 of the 20 matrices were solvable. This provided the incentive and opportunity for the athletes to cheat. Following this, athletes completed two questionnaires, which assessed the Dark Triad and their attitudes towards doping. All three Dark Triad personality traits correlated positively with attitudes towards doping and cheating behaviour. Regression analyses revealed that psychopathy and narcissism positively predicted attitudes towards doping, and narcissism emerged as a positive predictor of cheating behaviour. Attitudes towards doping correlated positively with cheating behaviour. The Dark Triad appears to be important in relation to both attitudes towards doping and cheating behaviour among athletes. In addition, our findings illustrate that favourable attitudes towards doping are linked with actual cheating among athletes. National Anti-Doping Organizations, sports federations, and coaches could assess athletes' Dark Triad scores and attitudes towards doping in order to identify who may be more likely to cheat.

Linking Narcissism, Motivation and Doping Attitudes in Sport: A Multilevel Investigation Involving Coaches and Athletes

1 Jan 2017

Linking Narcissism, Motivation and Doping Attitudes in Sport : A Multilevel Investigation Involving Coaches and Athletes / Doris Matosic, Nikos Ntoumanis, Ian David Boardley, Andreas Stenling, Constantine Sedikides. - (Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 38 (2016) 6 (December); p. 556-566).
- PMID: 27834564.
- DOI: 10.1123/jsep.2016-0141


Abstract

Research on coaching (Bartholomew, Ntoumanis, & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, 2009) has shown that coaches can display controlling behaviors that have detrimental effects on athletes' basic psychological needs and quality of sport experiences. The current study extends this literature by considering coach narcissism as a potential antecedent of coaches' controlling behaviors. Further, the study tests a model linking coaches' (n = 59) own reports of narcissistic tendencies with athletes' (n = 493) perceptions of coach controlling behaviors, experiences of need frustration, and attitudes toward doping. Multilevel path analysis revealed that coach narcissism was directly and positively associated with athletes' perceptions of controlling behaviors, and was indirectly and positively associated with athletes' reports of needs frustration. Additionally, athletes' perceptions of coach behaviors were positively associated-directly and indirectly-with attitudes toward doping. The findings advance understanding of controlling coach behaviors, their potential antecedents, and their associations with athletes' attitudes toward doping.

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