SDRCC 2019 CCES vs Graeme Thompson

3 Oct 2019

Related case:

CCES 2019 CCES vs Graeme Thompson
May 29, 2020

In September 2019 the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport (CCES) reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete Graeme Thompson after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substances Clenbuterol and Tamoxifen. After notification the Athlete admitted the violation, waived his right for a hearing, accepted the provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by CCES. 

The Athlete denied the intentional use of the substances and asserted that the positive test was the result of contaminated supplements he had used. Analysis of his supplements in the Montreal Lab confirmed the that they were contaminated. On 29 May 2020 the CCES decided to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 10 October 2019. 

Previously in September 2019 the Athlete requested for a SDRCC Doping Tribunal hearing in order to lift the provisional suspension because the positive test was the result of a contaminated product he had used. The CCES contended that the Athlete failed to establish that contamination was likely to have been the cause of the anti-doping rule violation. 

Considering the evidence and testimonies in the hearing the Arbitrator concluded that the anti-doping rule violation is likely the result of a contaminated product.

Therefore the SDRCC Doping Tribunal decided on 3 October 2019 that the CCES must lift the provisional suspension imposed on the Athlete.

SDRCC 2019 CCES vs Alexis Barrière

14 Sep 2019

Related case:

CCES 2019 CCES vs Alexis Barrière
March 4, 2020

In February 2019 the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport (CCES) reported an anti-doping rule violation against the boxer Alexis Barrière after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Stanozolol. After notification the Athlete gave a prompt admission, waived his right for a hearing, accepted the provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by CCES.

Afterwards in 2020 the CCES established that the Athlete bears No Significant Fault or Negligence in this case while the Athlete’s degree of fault is low. Therefore the CCES decides on 4 March 2020 to impose a 5 month period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting backdated on the date of the sample collection, i.e. on 21 February 2019 and ending on 20 July 2019.

Previously in September 2019 during the CCES proceedings the Athlete requested to lift the provisional suspension to enable him to attend a charity boxing gala on 20 September 2019. The Athlete argued that he had provided clear evidence that shows he was the victim of a contaminated product. However the CCES had only started its analysis of the Athlete's allegations concerning the contaminated product.

Considering the circumstances the SDRCC Arbitrator finds that he cannot render a decision as to whether or not the suspension normally imposed is likely to be completely lifted without giving the CCES the chance to conduct a full research and present its evidence in this matter. Also the Parties had agreed that CCES had a deadline until 27 September 2019 to file its submissions.

Therefore the Arbitrator decides on 14 September 2019 to grant the CCES the delay to complete its analysis. As a result the Arbitrator deems that lifting the provisional suspension is not justified and decides to deny the Athlete's request.

CAS 2020_A_7041 Nigina Tukhtaeva & Igor Obraztsov vs RusAF

5 Aug 2020

CAS 2020/A/7041 Nigina Tukhtaeva & Igor Obraztsov v. Russian Athletics Federation

On 27 June 2019 RUSADA imposed a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete Nigina Tukhtaeva for the use of the prohibited substance Methylhexaneamine (dimethylpentylamine) from 8 February 2019 until 7 February 2021

On 23 July 2019 RUSADA imposed a 12 month period of ineligibility on the Athlete Igor Obraztsov for the use of the substance Ligandrol (LGD-4033) from 29 April 2019 until 28 April 2020.

On 2 April 2020 Russian Athletics Federation (RusAF) approved new Eligibility Criteria fo Russian track-and-field athletes willing to join national teams of participate in sporting events. According to the Eligibility Criteria, athletes sanctioned for anti-doping rule violations after 18 November 2015 were not eligibile for Russian track-and-field national teams and other sporting events.

Hereafter in April 2020 both Athletes appealed the RusAF Eligibility Criteria with the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS).
The Athletes requested the Sole Arbitrator to temporary suspension of the Eligibility Critera by RusAF and to cancel and/or amend the Criteria.

The Athletes argued that the Eligibility Criteria cause a double sanction for the same offense, which conflicts with the principle of ne bis in idem. The Criteria contain inconsistencies and RusAF as a suspended member of the IAAF under the Rules it does not have the authority to impose anti-doping sanctions independently.

RusAF did not file an answer or otherwise defend the allegation brought against it by the Athletes.

The Sole Arbitrator establish that the Athletes have an interest in their appeal. Further the Sole Arbitrator concludes that the Eligibility Criteria would cause a double sanction while the Criteria are not in compliance with the ADR, WADA Code and IAAF Rules.

Consequently the Sole Arbitrator deems that the Eligibility Criteria will cause double sanctions for the Athletes and they are to that extent invalid and unenforceable in the case at hand.

Therefore the Court of Arbitration for Sport decides on 5 August 2020 that:

1.) The appeal filed on 26 April 2020 by Ms. Nigina Tukhtaeva and Mr. Igor Obraztsov against the Russian Athletics Federation with respect to the decision of the Presidium of RUSAF rendered on 2 April 2020 is upheld.
2.) The decision of the Presidium of RUSAF rendered on 2 April 2020 is declared invalid and unenforceable insofar as the eligibility criteria would apply to Ms. Nigina Tukhtaeva and Mr. Igor Obraztsov.
3.) [ ... ]
4.) [ ... ]
5.) All other and further motions or prayers for relief are dismissed.

Clomiphene Stimulation Test in Men Abusing Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids for Long Time

30 Apr 2014

Clomiphene Stimulation Test in Men Abusing Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids for Long Time / M. Medras, Pawel Zóźków, L. Terpilowski, E. Zagocka. - (Journal of Steroids & Hormonal Science 5 (2014) 2 (30 April); p. 1-4)

  • DOI: 10.4172/2157-7536.1000129


Objective: Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) are commonly used by athletes and recreational athletes. In some cases they induce persistent anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH).

Design: In an observational study we assessed the function of the pituitary-gonadal axis in a series of men with suspected ASIH.

Methods: Clomiphene stimulation test (CST) was performed in 13 hypogonadal adult men with previous, prolonged exposure to AAS. We evaluated the response of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and total testosterone (T) to 50 mg of clomiphene daily administered for a week. Mean concentrations of hormones before and after clomiphene administration were respectively (mean ± SD): 3 ± 1.2 and 8.3 ± 2 mIU/ml for LH; 3 ± 1.1 and 10 ± 14.6 mIU/ml for FSH; and 2.3 ± 0.6 and 7.2 ± 1.7 ng/ml for T (p<0.001).

Conclusions: Men with ASIH, after a long-time withdrawal of AAS, present an intact reaction of gonadotropins and testosterone to clomiphene stimulation.

Doping survey in the youth school games in Brazil

26 May 2017

Doping survey in the youth school games in Brazil / Paulo Rodrigo Pedroso da Silva, Geraldo Albuquerque Maranhao Neto, Casagrande Figueiredo, Ana Maria Pujol Vieira dos Santos, Maria Helena Vianna Metello Jacob, Eduardo Henrique de Rose, Lamartine Pereira da Costa. - (Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte 23 (2017) 6 (November/December); p. 436-440)

  • DOI: 10.1590/1517-869220172306163303


Introduction: Doping control is an important means for preventing the use of illegal substances and methods
in sports.

Objective: This study investigated the self-reported use of illegal substances among young Brazilian students in the Youth School Games, the main sporting event among school-aged athletes in Brazil with almost 2 million students during all the phases. Methods: Cross-sectional study with athletes of the Youth School Games 2006 aged 14-17 years. The subjects were randomly selected and completed an anonymous questionnaire about substances use. Chi-square test was used for comparison of proportions between different variables on self-reported use of substances. Univariate and multivariate analyzes and logistic regression were performed.

Results: Among the 402 athletes (aged 14-17) who volunteered to participate, the results showed
high prevalence of alcohol (35.8%), nutritional supplements (39.1%), and tobacco (5.4%). Regarding illegal drugs and doping, 1.7% reported the use of stimulants, 2.2% illicit drugs, 0.5% anabolic steroids, and 1.7% hormones and other similar substances. Moreover, a different use of stimulants was found (especially Judo and Table tennis), medications (especially Judo and Chess) and dietary supplements (especially Swimming and Judo, with over 50% reported use).

Conclusion: The present study suggests that the use of substances among young athletes is similar to the results found among adult Olympic athletes as per International Olympic Committee and World Anti-Doping Agency, especially regarding the use of dietary supplements, anabolic steroids, and stimulants according to data collected by other studies. We consider that the findings of the present work indicate the need for specific efforts to monitor, prevent, and control use of substances among school athletes in big events and competitions, such as this research on doping in the Youth School Games.

‘It was my thought … he made it a reality’: Normalization and responsibility in athletes’ accounts of performance enhancing drug use

30 Apr 2012

‘It was my thought … he made it a reality’ : Normalization and responsibility in athletes’ accounts of performance enhancing drug use / Evdokia Pappa, Eileen Kennedy. - (International Review for the Sociology of Sport 48 (2013) 3 (1 June); p. 277-294)

  • DOI: 10.1177/1012690212442116


Despite the widespread interest in athletes’ use of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) in track and field, the voices of the athletes who use banned substances have seldom been heard. Interviews with competitive athletes were conducted to explore their relationship to doping. Two themes emerged from the interviews. Firstly, the athletes presented doping as a normalized part of competitive sport, inevitably involving the participation of coaching staff. Secondly, and in contrast to the first theme, athletes maintained that they alone were responsible for the decision to use PEDs. The study supports the ‘networked athlete’ explanation of PED use, while highlighting the individualist explanation of doping offered by the athletes themselves. Foucault’s concept of governmentality is used to explain this contradiction, by suggesting that athletes’ internalization of responsibility for doping is part of the art of governing competitive sport.

Implementation of the HIF activator IOX-2 in routine doping controls - Pilot study data

17 Aug 2020

Implementation of the HIF activator IOX-2 in routine doping controls - Pilot study data / Christian Görgens, Sven Guddat, Christina Bosse, Andre Knoop, Hans Geyer, Mario Thevis. - (Drug Testing and Analysis (2020) 18 August)

  • PMID: 32809277
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.2914


Early in 2020, racehorse doping cases revolved around the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activator IOX-2. While the composition of IOX-2 has also been known and monitored in human doping controls for several years, the testing capability of routine sports drug testing methods was revisited for this newly surfaced doping agent. IOX-2 and the analytically well-established HIF activator roxadustat (FG-4592) share identical precursor/product ion pairs, enabling their co-detection in existing initial testing procedures in routine doping controls for the intact unconjugated analytes. In addition, hydroxylated IOX-2 and the corresponding glucuronic acid conjugates were identified as major metabolites in a microdose elimination study, contributing to enhanced initial testing and confirmation procedures.

Analysis of supplements available to UK consumers purporting to contain Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators

3 Aug 2020

Analysis of supplements available to UK consumers purporting to contain Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators / Amy E. Leaney, Paul Beck, Simon Biddle, Paul Brown, Philip B. Grace, Simon Hudson, Deborah H. Mawson. - (Drug Testing and Analysis (2020) 3 August)

  • PMID: 32748554
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.2908


Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are compounds with specific androgenic properties investigated for treatment of conditions such as muscle wasting diseases. The reported androgenic properties have resulted in their use by athletes, and consequently they have been on the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list for more than a decade. SARMs have been investigated by pharmaceutical companies as potential drug candidates, but to date no SARM has demonstrated sufficient safety and efficacy to gain clinical approval by either the European Medicines Agency or the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Despite their lack of safety approval, SARMs are often illegally marketed as dietary supplements, available for consumers to buy online. In this study, a range of supplement products marketed as SARMs were purchased and analysed using high resolution accurate mass - mass spectrometry to evaluate the accuracy of product claims and content labelling. This study found discrepancies ranging from a supplement in which no active ingredients were found, to supplements containing undeclared prohibited analytes. Where SARMs were detected, discrepancies were observed between the concentrations measured and those detailed on the product packaging. The outcome of this experiment highlights the high risk of such supplement products to consumers. The inaccurate product claims give rise to uncertainty over both the dose taken and the identity of any of these unapproved drugs. Even for supplements where product labelling is correct, the lack of complete toxicity data, especially for combinations of SARMs taken as stacks, means that the safety of these supplements is unknown.

Inside the locker room: a qualitative study of coaches’ anti-doping knowledge, beliefs and attitudes

22 Oct 2015

Inside the locker room: a qualitative study of coaches’ anti-doping knowledge, beliefs and attitudes / Terry Engelberg, Stephen Moston. - (Sport in Society 19 (2016) 7; p. 942-956)

  • DOI: 10.1080/17430437.2015.1096244


It is widely assumed that coaches have an effect on athletes’ doping behaviours; however, the means by which this influence can be manifested are only superficially understood. The present study seeks to understand how coaches see their role in directly and indirectly influencing the doping attitudes and behaviours of athletes. Fourteen elite-level coaches participated in focus group discussions. Coaches displayed a low level of knowledge of banned methods and practices. While it was acknowledged that doping was prevalent in sport, coaches believed that doping was not a problem in their own sport, since doping does not aid in the development or implementation of sporting ‘skills’. While the findings suggest that coaches support the revised WADA Code, with increased sanctions for coaches, the findings also highlight how coaches may indirectly and inadvertently condone doping. This may be through inaction or the apparent endorsement of pro-doping expectancies.

The safety, pharmacokinetics, and effects of LGD-4033, a novel nonsteroidal oral, selective androgen receptor modulator, in healthy young men

28 Mar 2012

The safety, pharmacokinetics, and effects of LGD-4033, a novel nonsteroidal oral, selective androgen receptor modulator, in healthy young men / Shehzad Basaria, Lauren Collins, E. Lichar Dillon, Katie Orwoll, Thomas W. Storer, Renee Miciek, Jagadish Ulloor, Anqi Zhang, Richard Eder, Heather Zientek, Gilad Gordon, Syed Kazmi, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, Shalender Bhasin. - (The Journals of Gerontology: Series A 68 (2013) 1 (January); p. 87–95)

  • PMID: 22459616
  • PMCID: PMC4111291
  • DOI: 10.1093/gerona/gls078


Background: Concerns about potential adverse effects of testosterone on prostate have motivated the development of selective androgen receptor modulators that display tissue-selective activation of androgenic signaling. LGD-4033, a novel nonsteroidal, oral selective androgen receptor modulator, binds androgen receptor with high affinity and selectivity. Objectives. To evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and effects of ascending doses of LGD-4033 administered daily for 21 days on lean body mass, muscle strength, stair-climbing power, and sex hormones.

Methods: In this placebo-controlled study, 76 healthy men (21-50 years) were randomized to placebo or 0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg LGD-4033 daily for 21 days. Blood counts, chemistries, lipids, prostate-specific antigen, electrocardiogram, hormones, lean and fat mass, and muscle strength were measured during and for 5 weeks after intervention.

Results: LGD-4033 was well tolerated. There were no drug-related serious adverse events. Frequency of adverse events was similar between active and placebo groups. Hemoglobin, prostate-specific antigen, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, or QT intervals did not change significantly at any dose. LGD-4033 had a long elimination half-life and dose-proportional accumulation upon multiple dosing. LGD-4033 administration was associated with dose-dependent suppression of total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. follicle-stimulating hormone and free testosterone showed significant suppression at 1.0-mg dose only. Lean body mass increased dose dependently, but fat mass did not change significantly. Hormone levels and lipids returned to baseline after treatment discontinuation.

Conclusions: LGD-4033 was safe, had favorable pharmacokinetic profile, and increased lean body mass even during this short period without change in prostate-specific antigen. Longer randomized trials should evaluate its efficacy in improving physical function and health outcomes in select populations.

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