Analysis of anabolic steroids using GC/MS with selected ion monitoring

1 Mar 1990

Analysis of anabolic steroids using GC/MS with selected ion monitoring / Bong Chul Chung, Hea-Young P. Choo, Tae Wook Kim, Khee Dong Eom, Oh Seung Kwon, Jawon Suh, Jongsoon Yang, Jongsei Park. - (Journal of Analytical Toxicology 14 (1990) 2 (March-April); p. 91-95)

  • PMID: 2325383
  • DOI: 10.1093/jat/14.2.91


Abstract

This study describes the use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring to screen 18 anabolic steroids banned by the International Olympic Committee. These anabolic steroids are analyzed in two fractions depending on their excretion pattern: nonconjugated (free) or conjugated fraction. The wet procedure of extracting steroids from urine consists of an initial isolation of lipophilic compounds on a column packed with Amberlite XAD-2 resin, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with beta-glucuronidase from Escherichia coli. After extraction, the hydrolyzed steroids are derivatized to the corresponding trimethylsilyl ethers. The derivatized steroids are analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring of their characteristic ions. It takes 12 and 26 min to run GC/MS and edit the raw data for nonconjugated and conjugated fractions respectively.

The pharmaceuticalisation of 'healthy' ageing: Testosterone enhancement for longevity

12 Feb 2021

The pharmaceuticalisation of 'healthy' ageing : Testosterone enhancement for longevity / Matthew Dunn, Kyle J.D. Mulrooney, Cynthia Forlini, Katinka van de Ven, Mair Underwood. - (International Journal of Drug Policy (2021) 103159 (12 February))

  • PMID: 33583680
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103159


Abstract

The United Nations estimates that the world's population will reach 8.5 billion by 2030, and the populations of most countries are expected to grow older. This is case for many developed countries, including Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States of America, and member states of the European Union. Older cohorts will comprise a larger proportion of overall populations, driven in part by our increases in life expectancy. An ageing population poses challenges for governments; notably, older people tend to have multiple, chronic health conditions which can place a burden of health budgets. At the same time, we are witnessing a shift in how we respond to the health needs of our populations, with global drug policy acknowledging that some substances are contributing to increased morbidity and mortality (e.g. opioids) while others may have beneficial therapeutic effects (e.g. psylocibin, cannabis). There is general agreement that as men age their levels of testosterone decrease, and there is some evidence to suggest that there have been population-level declines in testosterone which are not associated with age. Anecdotally, testosterone is accessed by men seeking to self-medicate in the belief that they are experiencing low testosterone levels. There has also been a rise in anti-ageing clinics in the United States, providing access to testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). The non-medical use of testosterone can result in a number of adverse health events, including complications from the use of black market or underground products. Placing testosterone under a new prescribing regime may address some of these concerns, but is society ready for this change, and if so, what would this regime look like? This paper will explore the issue of how society responds to enhancement for longevity, or how we increasingly use pharmaceuticals to address and prevent illness, with a specific focus on testosterone and testosterone deficiency.

Detection of anabolic steroids in head hair

20 Aug 1998

Detection of anabolic steroids in head hair / Xin-Sheng Deng, Akira Kurosu, Derrick J. Pounder. - (Journal of forensic sciences 44 (1999) 2 (March); p. 343-346)

  • PMID: 10097359
  • DOI: 10.1520/JFS14460J


Abstract

We developed a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for detection and quantitation of anabolic steroids in head hair. Following alkaline digestion and solid-phase extraction, the MO-TMS derivatives gave a specific fragmentation pattern with EI ionization. For stanozolol, the TMS-HFBA derivative showed several diagnostic ions. For androstanolone, mestanolone (methylandrostanolone), and oxymetholone two chromatographic peaks for cis and trans isomers of derivatives were seen. Recoveries were 35 to 45% for androstanolone, oxymetholone, chlorotestosterone-acetate, dehydromethyltestosterone, dehydrotestosterone, fluoxymesterone, mestanolone, methyltestosterone, and nandrolone; 52% for mesterolone, trenbolone; 65% for bolasterone; 24% for methenolone and 17% for stanozolol. Limits of detection were 0.002 to 0.05 ng/mg and of quantitation were 0.02 to 0.1 ng/mg. Seven white male steroid abusers provided head hair samples (10 to 63 mg) and urine. In the hair samples, methyltestosterone was detected in two (confirmed in urine); nandrolone in two (also confirmed in urine); dehydromethyltestosterone in four (but not found in urine); and clenbuterol in one (but not in urine). Oxymethalone was found in urine in one, but not in the hair. One abuser had high levels of testosterone: 0.15 ng/mg hair, and 1190 ng/mL urine. We conclude that head hair analysis has considerable potential for the detection and monitoring of steroid abuse.

The moral disengagement in doping scale

13 Feb 2016

The moral disengagement in doping scale / Maria Kavussanu, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Anne-Marie Elbe, Christopher Ring. - (Psychology of Sport and Exercise 24 (2016) May; p. 188-198)

  • DOI: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.02.003


Abstract

Statement of problem

The use of banned substances to enhance performance occurs in sport. Therefore, developing valid and reliable instruments that can predict likelihood to use banned substances is important.

Method

We conducted three studies. In Study 1, football players (N = 506) and athletes from a variety of team sports (N = 398) completed the Moral Disengagement in Doping Scale (MDDS). In Study 2, team sport athletes (N = 232) completed the MDDS and questionnaires measuring moral disengagement in sport, doping attitudes, moral identity, antisocial sport behavior, situational doping temptation, and task and ego goal orientations. A week later, a subsample (n = 102) completed the MDDS and indicated their likelihood to use a banned substance in a hypothetical situation. In Study 3, athletes (N = 201) from a variety of individual sports completed the MDDS and indicated their likelihood to use a banned substance in a hypothetical situation.

Results

The results of Study 1 showed that a one-factor model fitted the data well, and the scale had measurement invariance across males and females. In Study 2, we provided evidence for convergent, concurrent, discriminant, and predictive validity, as well as test-rest reliability, of the scale. In Study 3, doping moral disengagement was positively related with reported likelihood and temptation to use a banned substance. The scale exhibited very good internal consistency across the three studies.

Conclusions

In conclusion, the MDDS can be used to measure moral disengagement in doping in team and individual sports.

Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing - [2019-2020]

12 Nov 2020

Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing / Mario Thevis, Tiia Kuuranne, Hans Geyer. - (Drug Testing and Analysis 13 (2021) 1 (January); p. 8-35)

  • PMID: 31724288
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.2969


Contents:

  • Introduction
  • Anabolic Agent
    • Anabolic-androgenic steroids
    • Initial testing procedures: Comprehensive screening, metabolism studies
    • Steroid profiling in urine and serum
    • Confirmatory testing procedures – IRMS
    • Other anabolic agents
  • Peptide Hormones, Growth Factors, Related Substances, and Mimetics
    • Erythropoietin-receptor agonists and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activating agents
    • Growth hormone, its fragments and releasing factors, chorionic gonadotrophin and luteinizing hormone (LH)
  • β2‐Agonists
  • Hormone and Metabolic Modulators
  • Diuretics and other Masking Agents, Stimulants
  • Corticoids and cannabinoids
  • Manipulation of blood and blood components
  • Gene Doping
  • Conclusion


Abstract

Analytical chemistry‐based research in sports drug testing has been a dynamic endeavor for several decades, with technology‐driven innovations continuously contributing to significant improvements in various regards including analytical sensitivity, comprehensiveness of target analytes, differentiation of natural/endogenous substances from structurally identical but synthetically derived compounds, assessment of alternative matrices for doping control purposes, and so forth. The resulting breadth of tools being investigated and developed by anti‐doping researchers has allowed to substantially improve anti‐doping programs and data interpretation in general. Additionally, these outcomes have been an extremely valuable pledge for routine doping controls during the unprecedented global health crisis that severely affected established sports drug testing strategies. In this edition of the annual banned‐substance review, literature on recent developments in anti‐doping published between October 2019 and September 2020 is summarized and discussed, particularly focusing on human doping controls and potential applications of new testing strategies to substances and methods of doping specified the World Anti‐Doping Agency's 2020 Prohibited List.

ISR 2020 KNVB Decision Disciplinary Committee 2020003 T

12 Nov 2020

In May 2020 the Royal Netherlands Football Association (KNVB) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Person after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Cocaine. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete filed a statement in his defence. The case was settled by the ISR KNVB Disciplinary Committee based on the written submissions of the Parties.

The Person admitted the violation and asserted that the Cocaine was used out-of-competition in a context unrelated to sport performance. He expressed his regret and requested for a reduced sanction. He stated that prior to the competition on 25 January 2020 he had used Cocaine 3 times and that the last time he had used was around 2:15 hours in the morning of the competition.

The Doping Authority Netherlands contended that the Person failed to establish that the use of Cocaine was out-of-competition and unrelated to sport performance. He provided 4 different explanations about his use of Cocaine and none of these were consistent with the found concentrations of both Benzoylecgonine and Cocaine in his sample.

The Doping Authority considered it more likely that the Person had used Cocaine at midnight of 24 and 25 January 2020 and again around noon of 25 January before the start of the competition at 14:30 hours.

The Disciplinary Committee established that the Athlete had admitted the violation and had provided different testimonies about his use of the prohibited substance. The Committee deems that the scenario presented by the Doping Authority is the most likely explanation for the Person's use of Cocaine contrary to the Person's scenario.

Consequently the Committee concludes that the Person failed to demonstrate that the violation was not intentional nor that it occurred out-of-competition unrelated to sport performance.

Therefore the ISR KNVB Disciplinary Committee decides on 12 November 2020 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Person starting on the date of the provisional suspension.

Fees and expenses for this committee shall be borne by the Person.

CONAD 2017 CONAD vs Cinthya Melissa Guerrero Vásquez

13 Oct 2017

In July 2017 the National Anti-Doping Commission of Peru (CONAD) reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete Cinthya Melissa Gueerrero Vásquez for her refusal or failure to submit to sample collection. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete filed a statement in her defence.

The Athlete gave a prompt admission and acknowledged that she was unable to provide enough for a sample and was forced to leave the doping control because she was already late for work. She explained that she a single mother working as a model at different events in work shifts. Due to the her problems with the sample collection she was forced to leave the Doping Control and also arrived too late at her work while her boss had already cancelled her work shift.

CONAD considers that the Athlete gave a prompt admission of the anti-doping rule violation and with approval of WADA that the Athlete established grounds for a reduction of the sanction.

Therefore CONAD decides on 13 October 2017 to impose a 3 year and 6 month period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting back dated on 25 July 2017.

CONAD 2017 CONAD vs Cynthia Ross Mary Pereda Ortega

17 May 2017

In February 2017 the National Anti-Doping Commission of Peru (CONAD) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the volleyball player Cynthia Ross Mary Pereda Ortega after her sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Stanozolol.

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete was heard for the CONAD Sanction Commission.

The Panel finds that the presence of a prohibted substance had established in the Athlete's sample and accordingly that she committed an anti-doping rule violation.

The Panel concludes that the Athlete failed to demonstrate that the violation was not intentional nor grounds for a reduced sanction.

Therefore the CONAD Sanction Panel decides on 17 May to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete.

ADAK 2020 ADAK vs Patrick Kipyegon Terer

4 Feb 2021

In February 2020 the Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya (ADAK) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete Patrick Kipyegon Terer after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance 19-norandrosterone (Nandrolone).

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete declined to participate in any proceedings. The case was settled by the Kenya Sports Disputes Tribunal based on the written submissions of the Parties. 

The Tribunal finds that the presence of a prohibited substance had been established in the Athlete’s sample and accordingly that he had committed an anti-doping rule violation.

Without the Athlete’s response the Tribunal finds that he failed to establish that the violation was not intentional nor how the substance had entered his system. 

Therefore the Sports Disputes Tribunal decides on 4 February 2021 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 24 February 2020.

ADAK 2019 ADAK vs Bernhard Kiplangat Kibilo

4 Feb 2021

In January 2019 the Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya (ADAK) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete Bernhard Kiplangat Kibilo after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance 19-norandrosterone (Nandrolone).

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete waived his right for a hearing and the case was settled by the Kenya Sports Disputes Tribunal based on the written submissions of the Parties. 

The Athlete admitted the violation and alleged that a substance had been injected in a local clinic as treatment for his muscle injury. The Athlete was unable to indicate the location of the clinic that had been shut down due to operating without a license. 

The Tribunal finds that the presence of a prohibited substance had been established in the Athlete’s sample and accordingly that he had committed an anti-doping rule violation.

The Tribunal holds that the Athlete failed to establish that the violation was not intentional nor how the substance had entered his system. He could not show with any evidence the location of the clinic where he underwent medical treatment. 

Therefore the Sports Disputes Tribunal decides on 4 February 2021 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 30 January 2019.

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