ADAPI 2022_23 Satinder Malik vs INADA - Appeal

17 Sep 2022

On 15 June 2022 the Anti-Doping Disciplinary Panel of India (ADDPI) decided to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the wrestler Satinder Malik for his evasion of sample collection at a wrestling championship in October 2021.

Hereafter the Athlete appealed the ADDPI decision with the Anti-Doping Appeal Panel of India (ADAPI). He admitted that he had been notified and denied that he intentionally had evaded Doping Control.

The Athlete explained that at the wrestling championschip he suffered from a severe stomach pain and had to leave the venue urgently to have medical treatment. He asserted that the Doping Control Officer (DCO) was duly informed by his Coach about his medical condition.

The Athlete alleged that following medical treatment in 2 hosptals he returned to the venue to provide a sample. However the DCO denied his attempt to submit to sample collection.

INADA contended that the Athlete was duly notified by the DCO and thereupon he intentionally had evaded Doping Control. Further the hospitals in question denied that the Athlete had received medical treatment there. Also at the wrestling championship there had been present a medical team and an ambulance which did not use.

The Panel establishes that the Athlete had been duly notified by the DCO and failed to sign the Doping Control Form. He had not informed the DCO about his whereabouts and had left the venue. Accordingly the Panel concludes that the Athlete had committed an anti-doping rule violation.

The Appeal Panel did not accept the Athlete's explanations and deems that the filed evidence in his defence is unreliable and produced afterwards in support of his assertions in this case.

Therefore the ADAPI decide on decides on 17 September 2022 to dismiss the Athlete's appeal and to uphold the ADDPI decision of 15 June 2022 for the imposition of a 4 year period of ineligibility.

iNADO Update #2022-11

7 Nov 2022

iNADO Update (2022) 11 (7 November)
Institute of National Anti-Doping Organisations (iNADO)


iNADO Community

  • iNADO Presentation Report - NADOs acting as Sport Integrity Agencies
  •  Insights Report: Practices around calling Athletes within the final five minutes of the testing time slot
  • Testing Process for Athletes with Disability

Bulletin Board

  • iNADO Stakeholder Survey designed by OAKS Consultancy
  • Working Together Towards Excellence: iNADO Board hosted Webinars to Present the 5-year Strategic Plan
  • iNADO Webinar: New Way of Working
  • iNADO Webinar Summary: WADA NADO EAG Elections Candidates Introductory Webinars

Practical Development in Anti-Doping

  • iNADO ADAMS Working Group
  • iNADO Members: Data Protection and Privacy Policy

Athlete's Voice

  • Léa Krüger - Advocating for Athletes and Clean Sport
  • Sharing Global Stories: Inclusion of Athletes' Voice in the Eduation Sessions of NADA Germany


  • Tony Josiah appointed as Director of Education, Insight and Global Engagement at UKAD
  • Kim Højgaard Ravn, new CEO of Anti-Doping Denmark

iNADO Partners & Sponsors

  • New at the Anti-Doping Knowledge Center

Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators: An Emerging Liver Toxin

4 Nov 2022

Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators: An Emerging Liver Toxin / Haseeb Mohideen, Hafsa Hussain, Dushyant Singh Dahiya, Hisham Wehbe

  • Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 11 (2023) 1 (28 February), p. 188-196
  • PMID: 36479151
  • PMCID: PMC9647117
  • DOI: 10.14218/JCTH.2022.00207


Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a class of nonsteroidal drugs that are favored over anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) for their tissue-selectivity and improved side-effect profile. These drugs have been evaluated for treatment of various diseases including muscle-wasting disorders, osteoporosis, and breast cancer. Despite lacking approval for therapeutic use, SARMs are widely used recreationally as performance enhancing drugs by bodybuilders and athletes. In recent years, cases of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) secondary to SARMs have begun to emerge, but little is known regarding their hepatotoxicity. In this review, we provide current knowledge regarding DILI from SARMs. A literature search was conducted regarding SARMs and liver injury to evaluate relevant cases and information. SARMs have been associated with a cholestatic syndrome congruent with that of DILI from AASs, and it consists of a bland cholestasis in which there is minimal bile duct injury, inflammation, or necrosis. Patients present with an insidious onset of jaundice with marked hyperbilirubinemia and mild hepatic enzyme elevations. No clear treatment exists, although patients typically show improvement with cessation of the offending SARM. Given the novelty of these drugs, further study is necessary to understand diagnosis, management, and complications of SARM-related DILI.

Men, bodywork, health and the potentiality of performance and image-enhancing drugs

28 Dec 2022

Men, bodywork, health and the potentiality of performance and image-enhancing drugs / Gary W. Dowsett, Duane Duncan, Andrea Waling, Steven Angelide, Gemma Nourse

  • Health Sociology Review (28 December 2022), p. 1-16
  • PMID: 36577038
  • DOI: 10.1080/14461242.2022.2148959


In a qualitative study on masculinity, embodiment and sexuality, we interviewed men who were recreational gym-goers about their bodywork practices in Melbourne, Australia. We also asked whether the men had used performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) as an adjunct to their bodywork practices. While none had used PIEDs, all were considering, or had considered, using them. We found that participants held varying opinions on PIED use and those who used them. The literature on PIEDs noted men's concerns with body appearance and health and focused largely on individual problematic use, but non-users were not mentioned. A second issue in the literature focused on social influences on PIED use, but again with no mention of non-users. Discussion on risk reduction as a public health response did not mention non-users either. This paper, therefore, reports on non-users' thoughts on, regular exposure to, and considerations of PIEDs and other men who use them. We propose that PIEDs might more usefully be understood as an everyday, if contradictory, consideration within most men's bodywork and health practices. We argue that PIEDs constitute a discursive practice exposing a potentiality that engages non-users also and this requires new health promotion approaches.

Recreational Athletes' Use of Performance-Enhancing Substances: Results from the First European Randomized Response Technique Survey

8 Jan 2023

Recreational Athletes' Use of Performance-Enhancing Substances : Results from the First European Randomized Response Technique Survey / Ask Vest Christiansen, Monika Frenger, Andrea Chirico, Werner Pitsch

  • Sports Medicine-Open 9 (2023) 1 (8 January)
  • PMID: 36617340
  • PMCID: PMC9825800
  • DOI: 10.1186/s40798-022-00548-2


Background and aim: Measuring the prevalence of doping in recreational sport is difficult. However, to fit their initiatives, National Anti-Doping Organizations are interested in knowing the numbers, so their scarce resources are not wasted. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of doping and over-the-counter medicine use for performance enhancement among recreational athletes in eight European countries.

Design: A survey covering + 200 sports aimed at recreational athletes 15 years and older was distributed via social media to sports clubs and individuals in eight European countries. To overcome social desirability bias, we applied indirect questioning by using the Randomized Response Technique and asked for the use of over-the-counter medicine and doping for the year 2019.

Results: The prevalence of the use of over-the-counter medications for performance enhancement was estimated at 10.4%. We differentiated between the concept of "doping" as the behavior to enhance performance in a certain sport and the concept of "a doper" as a property of a person. The prevalence of dopers in recreational sport was found to be 0.4%, with 3.1% male and 0% female dopers. Responses were separated into four categories: "Artistic sports," "Combat sports," "Games," and "CGS sports" (i.e., sports measured in centimeters, grams, and seconds). The overall prevalence of doping in recreational sports was found to be 1.6%, and the results from Artistic and CGS sports did not differ significantly from this. However, in Games we found an estimated doping prevalence of 6.9%.

Discussion: The estimates for the prevalence of dopers and doping in this study do not equal Anti-Doping Rule Violations as stipulated by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Still, while doping is not absent in recreational sport in Europe, it appears to be a low frequent phenomenon. Also, the differences in doping prevalence between the sports categories might reflect structural and competition-related differences, rather than differences in the logic of the sporting competition or discipline-related subcultures.

Conclusion: While few recreational athletes appear to use illegal drugs to enhance performance, those who do use them are more often men than women. Yet, 1 in 10 recreational athletes uses over-the-counter medication for performance enhancement and more than 4 out of 10 use medication for other reasons than performance enhancement when doing sports. The highest doping prevalence was found in the sub-category of Games, which can likely be attributed to competition-related differences between the categories. Therefore, research on doping in recreational sports needs tailored approaches to come to a better understanding of the phenomenon.

Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing - [2021-2022]

11 Nov 2022

Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing / Mario Thevis, Tiia Kuuranne, Hans Geyer

  • Drug Testing and Analysis 14 (2022) 11 November
  • PMID: 36369629
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.3408


  • Introduction
  • Anabolic Agent
    • Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs)
    • Initial testing procedures (ITP): Comprehensive screening, metabolism studies
    • Other anabolic agents
    • Steroid profiling in urine and blood
    • Confirmatory testing procedures – IRMS
  • Peptide Hormones, Growth Factors, Related Substances, and Mimetics
    • Erythropoietin-receptor agonists
    • Growth hormone (GH), its fragments and releasing factors
  • β2‐Agonists, Hormone and Metablolic Modulators, and diuretics
  • Stimulants, Glucocorticoids, and Cannabinoids
  • Manipulation of blood and blood components
  • Chemical and Physical Manipulation and Gene Doping
  • Conclusion


Also in 2021/2022, considerable efforts were invested into advancing human sports drug testing programs, recognizing and taking into account existing as well as emerging challenges in anti-doping, especially with regard to substances and methods of doping specified in the World Anti-Doping Agency's 2022 Prohibited List. In this edition of the annual banned-substance review, literature on recent developments published between October 2021 and September 2022 is summarized and discussed. Focus is put particularly on enhanced analytical approaches and complementary testing options in human doping controls, appreciating the exigence and mission in anti-doping and, equally, the contemporary “new normal” considering, for example, the athlete's exposome versus analytical sensitivity and applicable anti-doping regulations for result interpretation and management.

Identification of equine in vitro metabolites of seven non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulators for doping control purposes

29 Oct 2021

Identification of equine in vitro metabolites of seven non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulators for doping control purposes / Charlotte Cutler, Marjaana Viljanto, Polly Taylor, Pamela Hincks, Simon Biddle, Peter Van Eenoo

  • Drug Testing and Analysis 14 (2022) 2 (February), p. 349-370
  • PMID: 34714606
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.3189


Selective androgen receptor modulators, SARMs, are a large class of compounds developed to provide therapeutic anabolic effects with minimal androgenic side effects. A wide range of these compounds are available to purchase online and thus provide the potential for abuse in sports. Knowledge of the metabolism of these compounds is essential to aid their detection in doping control samples. In vitro models allow a quick, cost-effective response where administration studies are yet to be carried out. In this study, the equine phase I metabolism of the non-steroidal SARMs GSK2881078, LGD-2226, LGD-3303, PF-06260414, ACP-105, RAD-140 and S-23 was investigated using equine liver microsomes. Liquid chromatography coupled to a QExactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer allowed identification of metabolites with high resolution and mass accuracy. Three metabolites were identified for both GSK2881078 and LGD-2226, four for LGD-3303 and RAD-140, five for PF-06260414, twelve for ACP-105 and ten for S-23. The equine metabolism of GSK-2881078, LGD-2226, LGD-3303 and PF-06260414 is reported for the first time. Although the equine metabolism of ACP-105, RAD-140 and S-23 has previously been reported, the results obtained in this study have been compared with published data.

Human In Vivo Metabolism and Elimination Behavior of Micro-Dosed Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator RAD140 for Doping Control Purposes

20 Jul 2022

Human In Vivo Metabolism and Elimination Behavior of Micro-Dosed Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator RAD140 for Doping Control Purposes / Felicitas Wagener, Luisa Euler, Christian Görgens, Sven Guddat, Mario Thevis

  • Metabolites 12 (2022) 7, p. 1-13
  • PMID: 35888790
  • PMCID: PMC9325264
  • DOI: 10.3390/metabo12070666


RAD140 is a selective androgen receptor modulator which has been abused in sporting competitions. Its use is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for athletes at all times. In addition to its illicit use, adverse analytical findings of RAD140 in doping control samples might result from other scenarios, e.g., the ingestion of contaminated dietary supplements. The differentiation between samples resulting from such contamination scenarios and intentional doping presents a considerable challenge, as little is known about the metabolism and elimination behavior of RAD140 in humans. In this study, six micro-dose excretion studies with five adult male volunteers each were conducted, and urine samples were analyzed by means of LC-HRMS/MS. Multiple metabolites, firstly detected in human urine, are described in this study. The sample preparation included an enzymatic hydrolysis step, which facilitated the estimation of RAD140 concentrations in urine. The elimination profiles and detection times for six metabolites as well as the intact drug are presented. The method was extensively characterized and deemed fit-for-purpose. The metabolite ratios were investigated for their predictive power in estimating the dose of RAD140 intake. The presented data will aid in better case result management in future doping cases involving RAD140.

Determination of growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) and their major metabolites in human urine for doping controls by means of liquid chromatography mass spectrometry

6 Feb 2011

Determination of growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) and their major metabolites in human urine for doping controls by means of liquid chromatography mass spectrometry / Andreas Thomas, Sebastian Höppner, Hans Geyer, Wilhelm Schänzer, Michael Petrou, Dorota Kwiatkowska, Andrzej Pokrywka, Mario Thevis

  • Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 401 (2011) 2 (August), p. 507-516
  • PMID: 21298258
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00216-011-4702-3


A family of small peptides has reached the focus of doping controls representing a comparably new strategy for cheating sportsmen. These growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) are orally active and induce an increased production of endogenous growth hormone (GH). While the established test for exogenous GH fails, the misuse of these prohibited substances remains unrecognized. The present study provides data for the efficient extraction of a variety of known drug candidates (GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-4, GHRP-5, GHRP-6, alexamorelin, ipamorelin, and hexarelin) from human urine with subsequent mass spectrometric detection after liquid chromatographic separation. The used method potentially enables the retrospective evaluation of the acquired data for unknown metabolites by means of a non-targeted approach with high-resolution/high-accuracy full-scan mass spectrometry with additional higher collision energy dissociation experiments. This is of great importance due to the currently unknown metabolism of most of the targets and, thus, the method is focused on the intact peptidic drugs. Only the already characterised major metabolite of GHRP-2 (D-Ala-D-2-naphthylAla-L-Ala, as well as its stable isotope-labelled analogue) was synthesised and implemented in the detection assay. Method validation for qualitative purpose was performed with respect to specificity, precision (<20%), intermediate precision (<20%), recovery (47-95%), limit of detection (0.2-1 ng/mL), linearity, ion suppression and stability. Two stable isotope-labelled internal standards were used (deuterium-labelled GHRP-4 and GHRP-2 metabolite). The proof-of-principle was obtained by the analysis of excretion study urine samples obtained from a single oral administration of 10 mg of GHRP-2. Here, the known metabolite was detectable over 20 h after administration while the intact drug was not observed.

Determination of growth hormone releasing peptides metabolites in human urine after nasal administration of GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-6, Hexarelin, and Ipamorelin

13 Apr 2015

Determination of growth hormone releasing peptides metabolites in human urine after nasal administration of GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-6, Hexarelin, and Ipamorelin / Ekaterina Semenistaya, Irina Zvereva, Andreas Thomas, Mario Thevis, Grigory Krotov, Grigory Rodchenkov

  • Drug Testing and Analysis 7 (2015) 10 (October), p. 919-925
  • PMID: 25869809
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.1787


Growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRPs) stimulate secretion of endogenous growth hormone and are listed on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List. To develop an effective method for GHRPs anti-doping control we have investigated metabolites of GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-6, Hexarelin, and Ipamorelin in urine after nasal administration. Each compound was administrated to one volunteer. Samples were collected for 2 days after administration, processed by solid-phase extraction on weak cation exchange cartridges and analyzed by means of nano-liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. Six metabolites of GHRP-1 were identified. GHRP-1 in the parent form was not detected. GHRP-1 (2-4) free acid was detected in urine up to 27 h. GHRP-2, GHRP-2 free acid and GHRP-2 (1-3) free acid were detected in urine up to 47 h after administration. GHRP-6 was mostly excreted unchanged and detected in urine 23 h after administration, its metabolites were detectable for 12 h only. Hexarelin and Ipamorelin metabolized intensively and were excreted as a set of parent compounds with metabolites. Hexarelin (1-3) free acid and Ipamorelin (1-4) free acid were detected in urine samples after complete withdrawal of parent substances. GHRPs and their most prominent metabolites were included into routine ultra-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry procedure. The method was fully validated, calibration curves of targeted analytes were obtained and excretion curves of GHRPs and their metabolites were plotted. Our results confirm that the detection window after GHRPs administration depends on individual metabolism, drug preparation form and the way of administration.

  • Legal Source
  • Education
  • Science
  • Statistics
  • History
Country & language
  • Country
  • Language
Other filters
  • ADRV
  • Legal Terms
  • Sport/IFs
  • Other organisations
  • Laboratories
  • Analytical aspects
  • Doping classes
  • Substances
  • Medical terms
  • Various
  • Version
  • Document category
  • Document type
Publication period