ANAD Annual Report 2017 (Romania)

13 Feb 2018

Raport de Activitate 2017 / National Anti-Doping Agency of Romania. - Bucharest : Agenţia Naţională Anti-Doping (ANAD), 2018

Whistleblowing against doping in sport: A cross-national study on the effects of motivation and sportspersonship orientations on whistleblowing intentions

18 Dec 2020

Whistleblowing against doping in sport : A cross-national study on the effects of motivation and sportspersonship orientations on whistleblowing intentions / Vassilis Barkoukis, Dmitriy Bondarev, Lambros Lazuras, Sabina Shakverdieva, Despoina Ourda, Konstantin Bochaver, Anna Robson

  • Journal of Sports Sciences 39 (2021) 10, p.1164-1173
  • PMID: 33337975
  • DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2020.1861740


Whistleblowing against anti-doping rule violations and related misconduct has been recognized as an important deterrent of doping behaviour in competitive sport. However, research on whistleblowing against doping is scarce and the available studies have focused on small samples using qualitative and inductive approaches. The present study used quantitative methods to assess, for the first time, the association between self-determined motivation, achievement goals, sportspersonship orientations and intentions to engage in whistleblowing against doping misconduct. A total of 992 competitive athletes from Greece (n = 480) and Russia (n = 512) completed structured measures of self-determination, achievement goals, sportspersonship orientation beliefs, and intentions to report doping misconduct. Latent profile analysis classified athletes into clusters consistent with the theoretical predictions. One-way analyses of variance further showed consistently across countries that autonomous motivated athletes reported higher intentions to whistleblow, and athletes with higher scores in achievement goals and sportspersonship orientations had significantly higher scores in whistleblowing intentions, compared to those with lower scores in these characteristics in both countries. This is the first study to demonstrate the association between motivational regulations, achievement goals, sportspersonship beliefs, and whistleblowing intentions. The theoretical and policy implications of our study are discussed.

The accreditation of the anti-doping laboratory: science and politics in the fight against doping in sport

20 Aug 2021

O credenciamento do laboratório antidopagem : ciência e política na luta contra o doping no esporte = The accreditation of the anti-doping laboratory : science and politics in the fight against doping in sport =  La acreditación del laboratorio antidopaje : ciencia y política en la lucha contra el dopaje en el deporte / Daniel Giordani Vasques, Ekain Zubizarreta Zuzuarregi, Marco Paulo Stigger

  • Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Esporte 43 (202), e006321
  • DOI: 10.1590/rbce.43.e006321


A pesquisa social sobre doping e a luta contra ele cresceu nos últimos anos, porém sua distribuição é desigual. O objetivo é descrever como os interesses da WADA e do governo brasileiro para ter o laboratório preparado para os Jogos de 2016 afetaram a luta antidopagem. Adotamos procedimentos etnográficos para analisar a suspensão, descredenciamento e recredenciamento do LBCD (2013-2015). Com ajuda da sociologia pragmática, visualizaram-se associações e interesses dos atores. Especificamente, retratou-se como a WADA conseguiu pressionar o governo por meio do descredenciamento de 2013 e, a partir das ações e associações do governo, como ela foi flexível para recredenciar um laboratório em condições inadequadas, a fim de mantê-lo atuante para os Jogos de 2016.


Social research on doping and anti-doping has grown in recent years. However, its distribution is uneven. The objective is to study how WADA and Brazilian government for having an operational laboratory affected anti-doping. We adopted an ethnographic approach to describe the processes of suspension, revocation and re-accreditation of LBCD (2013-2015). Using pragmatic sociology concepts, it is possible to identify actors’ associations and interests. Specifically, the paper will show that WADA managed to pressure the government through the 2013 revocation – forcing it to act and to associate with other actors − but it was then flexible to re-accredit a laboratory in inadequate conditions, in order to have it operational for 2016 Games.


La investigación social sobre antidopaje ha crecido en los últimos años, sin embargo, la repartición es desigual. El objetivo es describir cómo los intereses de AMA y del gobierno brasileño de tener un laboratorio para los JJOO de 2016 afectaron la lucha antidopaje. Adoptamos métodos etnográficos para analizar los procesos de suspensión, desacreditación y reacreditación del LBCD (2013-2015). Es posible identificar las asociaciones e intereses de los actores. Específicamente, se relata cómo AMA logró presionar al gobierno con la desacreditación y que, tras las acciones y asociaciones posteriores del gobierno, cómo fue flexible a la hora de volver a acreditar el laboratorio en condiciones inadecuadas, a fin de mantener el laboratorio operativo para los Juegos.

Understanding and building clean(er) sport together: Community-based participatory research with elite athletes and anti-doping organisations from five European countries

27 Mar 2021

Understanding and building clean(er) sport together: Community-based participatory research with elite athletes and anti-doping organisations from five European countries /  Andrea Petróczi,  Andrew Heyes, Sam N. Thrower, Laura A. Martinelli, Susan H. Backhouse, Ian D. Boardley, RESPECT Consortium

  • Psychology of Sport and Exercise 55 (July 2021), 101932
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2021.101932



In sport the narrative is changing from anti-doping to pro-clean sport. Yet, our understanding of what ‘clean sport’ means to athletes is notably absent from the literature.


Working together with elite athletes and National Anti-Doping Organisations (NADOs), this study explored the meaning and importance of ‘clean sport’ and ‘clean athlete identity’.


Community-based participatory research design was employed to explore (a) how elite athletes define clean sport and being a clean athlete; (b) the hopes and challenges associated with clean sport and being a clean athlete; and (c) what can be done in anti-doping to elicit clean sport.


Five elite athletes in five European countries (Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Slovenia and United Kingdom) were recruited as co-researchers by their respective NADOs, trained for their role as co-researchers and individually interviewed. Seventy-seven elite athletes were then purposefully recruited for 12 athlete-led national focus groups. Finally, the five athlete co-researchers and five athlete participants took part in one 2.5-h long international focus group.


Reflexive thematic analysis resulted in generating four overarching themes: ‘clean is being true to the self’, ‘clean performance enhancement has multiple meanings’, ‘clean is not a solo act’ and ‘the problems and solutions are systemic’. Collectively, the themes showed that the clean athlete identity is generally rooted in upbringing, early experiences and love of sport; and characterised by continued, intrinsically motivated commitment to fundamental values and morals acquired in childhood. In contrast, the concept of clean performance-enhancement is highly idiosyncratic and flexible. Elite athletes value anti-doping efforts but their experiences of disparity and unfairness in doping control undermine their trust in anti-doping.


Clean athlete identity is a social endeavour and artefact, which needs to be reflected in and developed through evidence-informed anti-doping interventions. Raising athletes' voices via collaboration and participatory research can be an enriching experience for athletes and researchers alike, and a worthwhile endeavour for sport organisations with responsibility for anti-doping. To make anti-doping education personally relevant, the richness of individual interpretation of ‘clean’ for the self (i.e., clean athlete identity) and performance-enhancement must be acknowledged, respected and cultivated.

Co-creating a social science research agenda for clean sport: An international Delphi study

13 Feb 2021

Co-creating a social science research agenda for clean sport : An international Delphi study / Ian D. Boardley, Martin Chandler, Susan H. Backhouse, Andrea Petróczi

  • International Journal of Drug Policy 92 (June 2021), 103161
  • PMID: 33589380
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103161


Background: Doping in sport is a significant issue. To date, research informing doping prevention has lacked a framework guiding research priorities. To ensure research is coordinated, sustainable and focused on end-user priorities, this study co-created the first research agenda for doping prevention.

Methods: The Delphi method was used to develop this agenda. Based upon two substantive reviews of the doping literature and 12 focus groups across five countries, a questionnaire was developed assessing the importance of 15 research topics and identifying research questions. Eighty-two anti-doping stakeholders with relevant expertise were invited to be panel members. In Round 1, an expert panel (n = 57; 70% response rate) completed this questionnaire. In Round 2, panel members (n = 33; 58% response rate) ranked for relative importance the eight topic areas rated highest in Round 1, before doing the same for research questions within each topic. Based on these rankings, a draft agenda was created. In Round 3, panel members (n = 26; 79% response rate) rated the degree to which they accepted this agenda, the feasibility of its delivery and identified possible barriers and facilitators to implementation.

Results: The results of Round 1 and Round 2 were used to create a draft agenda consisting of 18 research questions stratified across eight topic areas. This agenda was either fully (n = 16) or mostly (n = 9) accepted by the panel in Round 3 (96.2%). Research topics included the effectiveness of interventions/education programmes, environmental influences, long-term development of protective and risk factors in athletes and their entourage, athletes' experiences of anti-doping procedures and athletes' place in the anti-doping system.

Conclusions: A rigorous exercise created an agenda for doping prevention research. Adoption and application of this agenda should lead to better coordination, more efficient use of funding, enhanced uptake of research findings and more effective doping prevention education.

Performance and image enhancing drug interventions aimed at increasing knowledge among healthcare professionals (HCP)

3 Feb 2021

Performance and image enhancing drug interventions aimed at increasing knowledge among healthcare professionals (HCP) : reflections on the implementation of the Dopinglinkki e-module in Europe and Australia in the HCP workforce / A.M. Atkinson, Katinka van de Ven, M. Cunningham, T. de Zeeuw, E. Hibbert, C. Forlini, V. Barkoukis, H.R. Sumnall

  • International Journal of Drug Policy 95 (September 2021), 103141
  • Volume 95, September 2021, 103141
  • PMID: 33549466
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103141


Background: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) provide an important point of contact through which people who use performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs) could access reliable information, advice, and interventions on a range of PIEDs, their use and related harms. However, HCPs often report difficulties engaging and building rapport with people who use PIEDs, and research suggests that they often lack specialist knowledge on these substances. Providing credible evidence-based resources to support HCPs is thus important. However, educational materials in this area are generally absent and the ones that exist have not been assessed for their utility in the HCP workforce. This paper examines the acceptability and usability of a PIED e-learning module (the Dopinglinkki e-module) targeted at HCPs in three EU Member States and Australia.

Methods: A standardised two stage, mixed methodology was implemented. Stage 1 involved HCPs completing the e-module and completing an online survey (N = 77). Stage 2 involved conducting individual structured interviews with a subset of survey respondents (N = 37). Normalisation Process Theory and the Theoretical Framework of Acceptability were used as conceptual lenses.

Findings: The e-module provided information that was perceived as useful for HCPs' current and future practice. However, several individual, organisational and societal level barriers were reported as preventing the e-module becoming an accepted and normalised aspect of the HCP workforce, including the need for up to date evidence, the time-consuming nature of completing the e-module, lack of organisational support, the use of over-complex language, and the module's potential to reinforce the stigmatisation of PIEDs.

Conclusion: Providing credible evidence-based resources to support HCPs' knowledge development is important. Evidence-based and theory informed interventions are needed to equip HCPs with knowledge that can aid culturally sensitive interactions and effective engagement with people who use PIEDs. Reflecting on our study findings, it is important that the development of interventions should include the voices of both HCP and those using PIEDs, and that careful consideration is given to the various factors that may act as a barrier to effective implementation.

WADA at twenty: old problems and old thinking?

14 Mar 2019

WADA at twenty : old problems and old thinking? / Ivan Waddington, Verner Møller

  • International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics 11 (2019) 2, p. 219-231
  • DOI: 10.1080/19406940.2019.1581645
  • The World Anti-Doping Agency at 20: Progress and Challenges


The decision taken at Lausanne in 1999 to establish WADA represented a new start in anti-doping: a new organization under new leadership with new sources of funding, new headquarters and a new and wider anti-doping remit. The establishment of WADA also represented a potential new start in another way, for it offered an opportunity to develop fresh thinking and new approaches to anti-doping. To what extent has such fresh thinking been evident in WADA policy over the past twenty years? This question is examined via a focus on two key policy issues: WADA’s rationale for anti-doping policy and the reliance of WADA’s anti-doping policy on a strategy based on biological testing. What have been the implications of decisions in these areas for the outcomes of WADA policy, as measured by the number, and the type, of doping offences identified by WADA? It is argued that in many respects WADA’s policies represent a missed opportunity for, far from bringing new thinking or offering a new approach to anti-doping, WADA has for the most part simply reiterated and intensified policies which have a long history of failure and that those policies continue to be largely unsuccessful in controlling drug use in sport.

Anabolic androgenic steroid use population size estimation: a first stage study utilising a Delphi exercise

16 May 2022

The modes of administration of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users : are non-injecting people who use steroids overlooked? / Katinka van de Ven, Renee Zahnow, Jim McVeigh, Adam Winstock

  • Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 27 (2020) 2, p. 131-135
  • DOI: 10.1080/09687637.2019.1608910


Introduction: There is increasing public health concern about the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). Understanding of drug use patterns and practices is important if we are to develop appropriate risk-reduction interventions. Yet, much remains unclear about the modes of administration adopted by AAS users.

Methods: We used data from a sub-sample of participants from the Global Drug Survey 2015; males who reported using injectable or oral AAS in their lifetime (n = 1008).

Results: Amongst our sample, approximately one third (35.62%) reported using only injectable AAS during their lifetime while 35.84% reported using only oral, with less than one third (28.54%) using both.

Conclusion: These findings suggest there may be a sub-population of individuals who only use AAS orally. Needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) are currently the primary point of health service engagement; forming the main healthcare environment for medical and harm reduction advice on steroids. Yet, NSP-based resources are unlikely to reach or be appropriate to those who do not inject AAS. While there is a general need for health services to be more accessible when it comes to AAS use, non-injectors are an overlooked group that require attention.

#Drugsforsale: An exploration of the use of social media and encrypted messaging apps to supply and access drugs

7 Dec 2018

#Drugsforsale : An exploration of the use of social media and encrypted messaging apps to supply and access drugs / Leah Moyle, Andrew Childs, Ross Coomber, Monica J. Barratt

  • International Journal of Drug Policy 63 (January 2019), p. 101-110
  • PMID: 30530252
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2018.08.005


Background: The use of new technology is frequently harnessed by drug suppliers to both increase profits and reduce risk. While a growing body of research has investigated drug sales through online pharmacies and cryptomarkets, despite growing media interest, no published research exists on how smartphone-enabled social media and messaging applications ('apps') are utilised in the drug economy. This study analyses the ways such apps (e.g. Snapchat, Instagram and WhatsApp) are utilised to supply and access drugs.

Methods: Three data collection methods were employed: an international online survey of 358 drug users that had either used or considered using apps to access drugs; 'rapid' interviews (n = 20) with a similar population; and in-depth interviews (n = 27). Key issues explored were the perceived benefits and risks associated with sourcing drugs through apps, with specific attention paid to novel supply and purchasing practices.

Results: Apps appear to provide a quick, convenient method for connecting buyer and seller. They were often viewed as a valuable intermediary option between cryptomarkets and street dealing, providing 'secure' features and the opportunity to preview product without the requirement for technical expertise. Apps are used in a range of novel and diverse ways, including as social networking spaces in which drugs are advertised, and as encrypted messaging services for communicating with known sellers and arranging transactions. Key anxieties related to potential for exposure to law enforcement and legitimacy of substances.

Conclusion: Though 'social supply' through friends is still typically preferred and there is a degree of wariness toward app-mediated supply, our data indicate that apps are fast becoming a viable option for accessing drugs. Apps can provide an easily accessible platform that connects buyers with commercial drug suppliers and substances that may otherwise remain elusive. Potential harms can be reduced through the provision of information which demystify common-sense assumptions that apps are secure and that this 'visual' drug economy promotes safer purchasing practices.

Keywords: Apps; Cryptomarkets; Dark net; Drug dealing; Drug markets; Risk taking.

Students’ non-medical use of pharmaceuticals to manage time in everyday life crises

22 Mar 2019

Students’ non-medical use of pharmaceuticals to manage time in everyday life crises / Lea Trier Krøll

  • Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 26 (2019) 4, p. 339-346
  • DOI: 10.1080/09687637.2019.1585760
  • Special Issue: Pharmaceutical Cognitive Enhancement


This article examines students’ narratives of lived experiences with non-medical uses of prescription pharmaceuticals (NMUP) and analyzes how their experiences of time in everyday life influence the meanings they ascribe to their NMUP. The analysis draws on sociological notions of time and 28 in-depth qualitative interviews with young adults (age 20-30), who have used pharmaceuticals non-medically while enrolled at a university or college in Denmark. The article focuses on how a majority of students associate their NMUP with situations in which they experience urgency and a crisis of temporal agency due to their inability to pursue perceived necessary rhythms of studying or resting. It examines how these students consider NMUP a normative exception yet employ pharmaceuticals to manage their embodied and everyday life rhythms in order to relief senses of urgency and re-gain temporal agency. The article suggests the notion ‘everyday life crises’ to account for how students reflect that the time pressure associated with the experience of urgency relate to their everyday lives’ temporal practices, structures and norms. In conclusion, the article suggests that the analysis of NMUP as a practice embedded in everyday living highlights the relevance of conceptualising NMUP as ‘time work’ and suggests that future prevention campaigns should focus on students’ experiences of temporal conflicts in everyday life.

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