The Stigma of Anabolic Steroid Use

5 Aug 2016

The Stigma of Anabolic Steroid Use / Scott Griffiths, Stuart B. Murray, Jonathan M. Mond. - (Journal of Drug Issues 46 (2016) 4 (October); p. 1-11)

  • DOI: 10.1177%2F0022042616661837


Abstract

Little is known about the stigma of anabolic steroid use despite clear implications for treatment-seekers and for public policy development. We investigated the predictors of steroid stigma and contextualized the results by comparing steroids with marijuana. Undergraduates (N = 304) completed measures of drug stigma, exposure to drug users, and history of drug use. Participants stigmatized steroid use more than marijuana use—a very large effect. Participants reported less exposure to steroid users. Nevertheless, 15% of participants reported having a steroid-using friend. History of drug use, but not exposure to steroid users, predicted lower steroid stigma. Drug use and exposure both predicted lower marijuana use stigma. The amount of stigma expressed toward steroids is commensurate with that of “hard” drugs, such as heroin, likely constituting a formidable barrier to treatment. The public’s difficulty empathizing with male body image insecurities may partially explain why exposure to steroid users did not predict lower stigmatization.

Muscle Dysmorphia, Self-esteem, and Loneliness among Gay and Bisexual Men

1 Jul 2008

Muscle Dysmorphia, Self-esteem, and Loneliness among Gay and Bisexual Men / Michael P. Chaney. - (International Journal of Men's Health 7 (2008) 2 (Summer); p. 157-170)

  • DOI: 10.3149/jmh.0702.157


Abstract

Although past research indicates gay and bisexual men are more concerned with muscularity than their heterosexual counterparts, studies investigating psychosocial factors contributing to muscle dysmorphia (MD) among gay and bisexual men are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-esteem, loneliness, and MD among gay and bisexual men. Participants (N = 304) completed the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS), Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), and UCLA Loneliness Scale (ULS-version 3). A relationship among self-esteem, loneliness, and MD was found. Gay and bisexual men who reported more symptoms of MD also reported lower self-esteem and increased feelings of loneliness, than men who reported fewer MD symptoms. Psychological and environmental variables associated with gay and bisexual men are explored to help explain these results. Implications for future MD research among other oppressed populations also are discussed.

His Biceps Become Him: A Test of Objectification Theory’s Application to Drive for Muscularity and Propensity for Steroid Use in College Men

13 Dec 2010

His Biceps Become Him: A Test of Objectification Theory’s Application to Drive for Muscularity and Propensity for Steroid Use in College Men / Mike C. Parent, Bonnie Moradi. - (Journal of Counseling Psychology 58 (2011) 2 (April); p. 246-256)

  • PMID: 21142351
  • DOI: 10.1037/a0021398


Abstract

Men's body image problems may manifest as an unhealthy drive for muscularity and propensity to use anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). Aspects of objectification theory were integrated with literature on men's drive for muscularity and AAS use to identify correlates of these problems. The resultant model was tested with path analyses of data from 270 college men. First, consistent with prior research on objectification theory, results indicated that body surveillance partially mediated the link of internalization of cultural standards of attractiveness with body shame. Second, positive outcome expectation for AAS use partially mediated the link of drive for muscularity with intention to use AAS. Third, drive for muscularity partially mediated the links of internalization with outcome expectation for AAS use and intention to use AAS. Finally, outcome expectation for AAS use was an additional partial mediator of the link of internalization with intention to use AAS. Body surveillance and body shame did not have unique direct or mediated relations with drive for muscularity or AAS variables. These findings point to internalization of cultural standards of attractiveness as the nexus of overlap between the objectification theory variables and men's drive for muscularity and propensity to use AAS.

Steroidgebrauch bei Freizeit-Bodybuildern = Steroid Use in Free Time Bodybuilders

1 Jun 2021

Steroidgebrauch bei Freizeit-Bodybuildern = Steroid Use in Free Time Bodybuilders / Felicitas Michels-Lucht, Jan Schirmer, Thomas Klauer, Harald Freyberger, Michael Lucht. - (Psychotherie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie 61(2011) 12; 512-517)

  • DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1295454


Abstract

A sample of 74 male bodybuilders was analyzed for relationships between steroid abuse (abuse n=31; no abuse n=43) and self-esteem (Multidimensionale Selbstwertskala MSWS), body-image (Body-Image Questionnaire FK-ASA) as well as teasing (Physical Appearance Related Teasing Scale PARTS). In a logistic regression analysis age (p=0.001), low values for body expression (p=0.036) and high self-esteem (p=0.024) predicted steroid intake; training frequency or teasing experiences showed no effect. Contrary to earlier findings high and not low self-esteem was associated with steroid abuse. Because of the overlap between constructs narcissism and self-esteem further studies should disentangle the role of narcissism and self-esteem for steroid abuse in bodybuilders.

Harm Reduction in Male Patients Actively Using Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) and Performance-Enhancing Drugs (PEDs): a Review

4 May 2021

Harm Reduction in Male Patients Actively Using Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) and Performance-Enhancing Drugs (PEDs): a Review / Alex K. Bonnecaze, Thomas O'Connor, Cynthia A. Burns. - (Journal of General Internal Medicine (2021) 4 May)

  • PMID: 33948794
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11606-021-06751-3


Abstract

Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) and performance-enhancing drug (PED) use is a prevalent medical issue, especially among men, with an estimated 2.9-4 million Americans using AAS in their lifetime. Prior studies of AAS use reveal an association with polycythemia, dyslipidemia, infertility, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and multiple behavioral disorders. AAS withdrawal syndrome, a state of depression, anhedonia, and sexual dysfunction after discontinuing AAS use, is a common barrier to successful cessation. Clinical resources for these patients and training of physicians on management of the patient using AAS are limited. Many men are hesitant to seek traditional medical care due to fear of judgment and lack of confidence in physician knowledge base regarding AAS. While proposed approaches to weaning patients off AAS are published, guidance on harm reduction for actively using patients remains sparse. Medical education regarding the management of AAS use disorder is paramount to improving care of this currently underserved patient population. Management of these patients must be non-judgmental and focus on patient education, harm reduction, and support for cessation. The approach to harm reduction should be guided by the specific AAS/PEDs used.

Anabolic androgenic steroid-induced hypogonadism, a reversible condition in male individuals? A systematic review

22 Apr 2021

Anabolic androgenic steroid-induced hypogonadism, a reversible condition in male individuals? : A systematic review / José de Oliveira Vilar Neto, Carlos Alberto da Silva, Carlos Antônio Bruno da Silva, Daniel V. Pinto, Juan de Sá Roriz Caminha, Robson S. de Matos, Júlio C.C. Nunes Filho, Felipe R. Alves, Saulo C. Magalhães, Elizabeth De Francesco Daher. - (Andrologia (2021) e14062 (22 April))

  • PMID: 33887077
  • DOI: 10.1111/and.14062


Abstract

The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are clinically used as an androgen replacement, in hypogonadism treatment, to induce puberty, and also in the treatment of chronic degenerative diseases. The AAS use out of clinical context is becoming massively, being used merely for aesthetic reasons. AAS abuse may cause severe disarrangement on the HPG axis and generate a significant decrease in testosterone synthesis and secretion by the testes. This review aims to evaluate whether the hypogonadism induced by AAS abuse is reversible and under what circumstances the reversibility is possible. For this, PRISMA guidelines and several databases are used between July and September 2020. Altogether, this systematic review identified and analysed 179 cases of AAS users. Of these, 168 cases had the hypogonadism clearly diagnosed and proven to be linked exclusively to AAS abuse. However, between these 168 cases, only 38 cases presented fully known outcomes and among these, merely in 4, the hypogonadism was completely reversible (2 based on drug therapy) with HPG axis recovery. In conclusion, this review presents evidences that AAS-induced hypogonadism is a seriously underestimated problem, and in the majority of cases, full recovery is very difficult to succeed.

Muscle Dysmorphia and Personality Trait: A Significant Link in Bodybuilders

1 Jun 2013

Muscle Dysmorphia and Personality Trait : A Significant Link in Bodybuilders / Jaspal Singh Sandhu, Sai Kishore, Shweta Shenoy, Harwinder Singh Randhawa. - (Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, Education and Research 47 (2013) 2 (April-June); p. 77-82)

  • DOI: 10.5005/JP-JOURNALS-10028-1060


The purpose of this study was to test for significant link between personality trait and muscle dysmorphia in bodybuilders. A total of 212 bodybuilders filled the muscle dysmorphia inventory of which 44.3% (n = 94) were found to be muscle dysmorphic. Their personality traits assessed using eysenck personality profiler in the vienna testing system machine revealed 65% of muscle dysmorphic bodybuilders being predominantly oriented toward extroversion type of personality. Further statistical analysis revealed, the significance between the muscle dysmorphia inventory and the personality traits and its results are discussed. Estimating the prevalence and categorizing based on personality has rather opened a new gateway to identify such vulnerable men who are susceptible to their own drive for muscularity.

FEI 2019 FEI vs Nicole Walker

4 Jun 2021

Related case:

CAS 2020/A/6695 Nicole Walker v. PANAM Sports
CAS 2020/A/6700 Equestrian Canada v. PANAM Sports
CAS 2020/A/7386 PANAM Sports v. Nicole Walker and Equestrian Canada
April 22, 2021



In August 2019 the Pan American Sports Organization (PASO) reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Canadian Athlete Nicole Walker after her A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substance Cocaine. Consequently the Panam Sports Disciplinairy Commission decided on 11 Decemer 2019 to disqualify the Athlete and her results related to Team Canada.

Hereafter the case was referred to the International Equestrian Federation (FEI) and in November 2019 a provisional suspension was ordered.

The Athlete denied the intentional use of Cocaine and explained with evidence that the positive test was the result of her ingestion of tea at the hotel where she stayed at the occasion of the Pan American Games. She was not aware at that time that the green tea she took was in fact coca tea. She provided statement's from the Hotel's manager which confirmed that coca tea was offered to its guests.

The parties in this case reached an agreement and requested the FEI Tribunal to issue a Decision incorporating the terms of this agreement. The FEI Tribunal settled the case based on the written submissions of the parties.

The parties agreed that the violation was not intentional and that the Athlete bears No Significant Fault or Negligence with a light degree of Fault or Negligence. The Athlete accepted the sanction and agreed to fulfil the Education Requirement within 1 year.

Therefore the FEI Tribunal decides on 4 June 2021 in accordance with the mutual consent of the Parties to impose a fine and a 1 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on 26 September 2019.

World Athletics 2020 WA vs Omar Craddock

7 May 2021

In November 2020 the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) of World Athletics has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the American Athlete Omar Craddock for his Whereabouts Filing Failures resulting in 2 Missed Tests within a 12 month period. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete filed a statement in his defence and he was heard for the World Athletics Disciplinary Tribunal.

The Athlete did not challenge his Filing Failure on 1 April 2020 or the Misses Test on 29 July 2020. The Athlete only contested the Missed Test on 20 August 2019 and retracted his previous admission in his email of 29 August 2019. He testified that he believed he updated his Whereabouts information on 19 August listing 20 August as a travel day. He asserted with evidence that due to to problems associated with the used software the 20 August 2019 travel day was incorrectly entered into the system.

World Athletics rejected the Athlete's explanation that the Athlete believed he had updated his Whereabouts information for 20 August 2019 as a travel day on 19 August 2019. He had simply forgotten to update his Whereabouts information for 20 August 2019. Furthermore there had been no login activity (or attempted login activity) to either the website or the mobile application by the Athlete between 13 August 2019 and 20 August 2019.

Considering the evidence in this case the Sole Arbitrator concludes that the Athlete is responsible for 3 Whereabouts Failures within the 12 month period beginning 20 August 2019 and accordingly that he committed an anti-doping rule violation.

The Sole arbitrator finds that the Athlete had acted negligently as he had forgotten to update his Whereabouts while prior in his email of 29 August the Athlete indeed had admitted that he had missed the test on 20 August 2019.

Finally the Sole Arbitrator assessed the circumstances and the Athlete's of Fault in connexion with his 3 offences and deems that the Athlete's sanction can be reduced from 24 to 20 months.

Therefore the World Athletics Disciplinary Tribunal decides on 7 May 2021 to impose a 20 month period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 13 November 2020.

UCI-ADT 2020 UCI vs Fabian Hernando Puerta Zapata

16 Dec 2020

In August 2018 the International Cycling Union had reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Colombian Rider Fabian Hernando Puerta Zapata after his A and B samples tested posititive for the prohibited substance Boldenone.

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete filed a statement in his defence with the UCI Anti-Doping Tribunal (UCI-ADT). The Sole Arbitrator renders a decision based on the written submissions of the Parties.

The Athlete denied the intentional use of the substance and requested for a reduced sanction. He argued with medical opinions that his positive tests were the result of his consumption of Boldenone-contaminated meat on the evening before the doping control. He asserted with evidence that Boldenone is widely used in farming of beef cattle in Columbia.

When assessing the likelihood of the various scenarios the Athlete submited that the Panel should also take into account the jurisprudence in comparable cases. Further the Athlete disputed the validity of the test results because of the inconsistencies found in the Lab dossier and due to the partially suspended accreditation of the Salt Lake City Lab.

After consultation with external scientific experts the UCI rejected the Athlete's explanation due to the concentration Boldenone found in his samples was not consistent with the alleged consumption of contaminated meat. Moreover the found concentration was consistent with the intentional injection of Boldenone 1-2 days before the test.

The Sole Arbitrator finds that the presence of the prohibited substance Boldenone has been established in the Athlete's samples and accordingly that he committed an anti-doping rule violation.

The Sole Arbitrator deems that in the absence of convincing evidence the Athlete failed to demonstrate that there had been departures of the ISL. Also at the relevant time the Salt Lake City Lab was fully reinstated and it met all requirements and recommendations.

The Sole Arbitrator is not prepared, on the balance of probability, to accept the Athlete's hypothesis of meat contamination. Nor is there evidence on file, on a balance of probabilities, that there must have been an oral route of ingestion and that such oral ingestion must stem from an inadvertent meat contamination.

Finally the Sole Arbitrator concludes that:

  • The Athlete has committed an anti-doping rule violation;
  • he has not discharged his burden of proof how, on a balance of probabilities, the prohibited substance entered his system; and
  • he failed to show, on a balance of probabilites, that the violation was not intentional.

Therefore the UCI Anti-Doping Tribunal decides on 16 December 2020 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 13 August 2018. The UCI's costs for the results management, the sample collection and the laboratory documentation package shall be borne by the Athlete.

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