Ultra trace detection of a wide range of anabolic steroids in meat by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

29 Dec 1999

Ultra trace detection of a wide range of anabolic steroids in meat by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry / P. Marchand, B. le Bizec, C. Gade, F. Monteau, F. André

  • Journal of Chromatography A 867 (2000) 1-2 (January 21), p. 219-233
  • PMID: 10670723
  • DOI: 10.1016/s0021-9673(99)01114-0


Abstract

The control on use of anabolic agents in meat producing animals is generally based on urine, faeces or hair analysis. This exercise, which is usually performed in slaughterhouses or on farms, is not relevant to imported carcasses or retail meat. A single sensitive method for a wide range of anabolic steroids was developed. After extraction of the lyophilised meat, enzymatic hydrolysis was used for deconjugation. Solid-phase extraction on a polymeric stationary phase was performed prior to hydrolysis of ester residues under alkaline conditions. Liquid-liquid partitioning was used to separate the analytes into two main categories: phenol containing molecules, such as phenolic steroids, resorcylic acid lactones and stilbenes, and delta4-3-one containing molecules, such as most androgens and progestagens. Solid-phase extraction on silica columns was performed before applying a specific derivatisation for each compound sub-group. The combination of high-resolution chromatography with a quadrupole mass spectrometer permitted detection of 23 steroids in the 5-100 ng/kg range. Ion chromatograms for residue positive samples are shown and discussed.

Determination of Steroid Esters in Hair of Slaughter Animals by Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

30 Mar 2016

Determination of Steroid Esters in Hair of Slaughter Animals by Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry / Iwona Matraszek-Żuchowska, Barbara Woźniak, Katarzyna Sielska, Andrzej Posyniak

  • Journal of Veterinary Research 69 (2019) 4 (December), p. 561-572
  • PMID: 31934668
  • PMCID: PMC6950443
  • DOI: 10.2478/jvetres-2019-0061


Abstract

Introduction: The use of growth promoters in animal husbandry to increase weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion into muscle has been banned in the European Union since 1988, and under Directive 96/23/EC, surveillance for anabolic steroid hormones is obligatory. The hormones present in animal tissues may be of endogenous origin or may result from illegal administration. Steps have been taken to determine selected steroids in the form of esters in the alternative matrix of animal hair. Their detection in biological material is direct proof of the illegal use of anabolics.

Material and methods: The procedure for the determination of steroid esters in animal hair, based on digestion, extraction, purification, and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was validated under the current regulations. In total, 348 samples of animal hair were examined using this method.

Results: Good recoveries and precision values (RSD) were obtained during validation. Decision limits (CCα) and detection capabilities (CCβ) were in the ranges of 2.57-4.18 μg kg-1 and 4.38-7.12 μg kg-1, respectively. The method met the criteria for confirmation techniques with respect to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC.

Conclusion: Testing for steroid esters in animal hair was introduced into the National Residue Control Programme in 2017. Steroid esters were not found in any hair samples above the CCα, which indicates that illegal use of anabolics was not confirmed.

Illegal treatment of barrows with nandrolone ester: effect on growth, histology and residue levels in urine and hair

1 Feb 2012

Illegal treatment of barrows with nandrolone ester : effect on growth, histology and residue levels in urine and hair / M.J. Groot, J.J.P. Lasaroms, E.O. van Bennekom, T. Meijer, E. Vinyeta, J.D. van der Klis, M.W.F. Nielen

  • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A 29 (2012) 5, p. 727-735
    PMID: 22296620
  • DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2011.647097


Abstract

The effect of 17β-19-nortestosterone (17βNT) treatment of barrows on residue levels and growth was evaluated. Five barrows were treated three times during the fattening period with 17βNT phenylpropionate (Nandrosol, nandrolone phenylpropionate 50 mg/ml,1 mg/kg body weight). Another five barrows were untreated and five boars (untreated) were kept as positive control. Boars and treated barrows showed a 13 and 9% improvement in growth compared to untreated barrows, with mean final body weights of 121.6, 117.8 and 109.0 kg, respectively. The bulbourethral glands of the treated barrows were three times heavier than untreated barrows. The histology of the prostate and bulbourethral gland of the treated barrows was comparable to the boars, whereas the control barrows showed atrophic glands. Levels of 17βNT ester in hair from treated barrows were high, whereas boars and untreated barrows did not show levels above LLQ. It is concluded that analysis of hair can detect illegal treatment with 17βNT ester in barrows. The size of the bulbourethral gland can also be used for screening in the slaughterhouse.

ADAK 2021 ADAK vs Judith Jepngetich

18 Jan 2022

In August 2021 the Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya (ADAK) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete Judith Jepngetich after her samples, collected on two occasions, tested positive for the prohibited substance 19-norandrosterone (Nandrolone). After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete was heard for the Kenya Results Managment Panel.

The Atlete accepted the test results and denied the intentional use of the substance. She stated that she suffered from a cold and had used medication provided by a chemist. She acknowledged that she only mentioned one of the two products on the Doping Control Form.

The Panel finds that the presence of a prohibited substance has been established in the Athlete's samples and accordingly that she committed an anti-doping rule violation. The Panel deems that without corroborating evidence the Athlete failed to demonstrate that the violation was not intentional, nor how the substance had entered her system, nor that she acted without fault or negligence.

Therefore the Panel decides on 18 January 2022 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 24 August 2021.

ADAK 2021 ADAK vs Phenus Kipleting

16 Dec 2021

In March 2021 the Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya (ADAK) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete Phenus Kipleting after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance 19-norandrosterone (Nandrolone).

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete filed a statement in his defence and the case was settled by the Kenya Results Management Panel based on the written submissions of the parties.

The Athlete accepted the test result and denied the intentional use of the substance. He explained with evidence that he  suffered from an injury and had used a pain killer provided by a chemist whereas he mentioned this product on the Doping Control Form.

The Panel finds that the presence of a prohibited substance has been established in the Athlete's sample and accordingly that he committed an anti-doping rule violation. The Panel accepts that the violation was not intentional without grounds for a further reduction of the sanction.

Therefore the Panel decides on 16 December 2021 to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 31 March 2021.

ADAK 2021 ADAK vs Martha Wanjiku Njoroge

21 Dec 2021

In August 2021 the Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya (ADAK) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete Martha Wanjiku Njoroge after her sample tested positive for the prohibited substance 19-norandrosterone (Nandrolone). After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete was heard for the Kenya Sports Disputes Tribunal.

The Athlete admitted the violation and denied the intentional use of the substance. She explained with medical information that she had used medication prescribed by her doctor as treatment for her condition. She acknowledged that she didn't mention to her doctor that she was an athlete nor did she check this medication for prohibited substances.

The Tribunal finds that the presence of a prohibited substance has been established in the Athlete's sample and accordingly that she committed an anti-doping rule violation as admitted by the Athlete. The Tribunal accepts that the violation was not intentional and that had been established how the substance had entered her system.

Therefore the Tribunal decides on 21 December 2021 to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 4 August 2021.

ADAK 2021 ADAK vs Joan Nancy Rotich

16 Sep 2021

Related case:

ADAK 2019 ADAK vs Joan Nancy Rotich
October 17, 2019

On 17 October 2019 the Kenya Judiciary Office of the Sports Disputes Tribunal decided to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete Joan Nancy Rotich after she tested positive for the prohibited substance 19-norandrosterone (Nandrolone).

Hereafter the Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya (ADAK) established that the Athlete had participated in 3 marathons in March 2019, October 2019 and in November 2019 during the period dat she was provisionally suspended and thereupon a 4 year period of ineligibility was imposed.

After notification in January 2021 ADAK ordered a provisional suspension while the Athlete failed to attend the proceedings. She submitted that she accepted the charges and requested the Tribunal to render a decision in her case.

Based on the evidence the Tribunal concludes that the Athlete had breached the prohibition of particpation during ineligibility and that the charges were undisputed by the Athlete.

Therefore the Tribunal decides on 16 September 2021 to impose an additional 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date the current period of ineligibility shall end, i.e. on 28 February 2023.

UKAD 2021 UKAD vs Marc Shackley

10 May 2022

In October 2021 United Kingdom Anti-Doping (UKAD) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the rugby player Marc Shackley after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Clenbuterol. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete filed a statement in his defence and he was heard for the National Anti-Doping Panel.

The Athlete admitted the violation, denied the intentional use of the substance and requested for a reduced sanction. He asserted that he genuinely believed that he had retired since Austus 2021 and was no longer subject to the Anti-Doping Rules (ADR). He explained that due to his knee injuries he was scheduled for surgery and had purchased and used a fat metaboliser in September 2021 to assist with weight loss in anticipation of surgery.

UKAD contended that the Athlete was subject to the ADR while at the material time the Athlete nor his club had requested the Rugby Football League (RFL) to remove him from the register of players. His Employment Contract with his Club was not terminated and when the Athlete provided the sample he neither informed the Doping Control Officer (DCO) about his retirement.

The Tribunal finds that the presence of a prohibited substance has been established in the Athlete's sample and accordingly that he committed an anti-doping rule violation.

The Tribunal determines that UKAD has jurisdiction and that at all material times the Athlete was subject to the ADR. Further the Tribunal had serious doubts as to whether the Athlete thought he had retired before the ingestion of the fat burner.

Considering the Athlete's conduct in this case the Tribunal deems that the Athlete manifestly disregarded the risk that taking the fat burner could lead to and anti-doping rule violation, carrying out no checks whatsoever. Finally he provided no evidence to the contrary and is simply relying upon the claim that he mistakenly believed he was not bound by the ADR.

Therefore the Tribunal decides on 10 May 2022 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 8 October 2022.

Declaration of Guiding Principles for the Future of Anti-Doping

10 Jun 2022

Declaration of Guiding Principles for the Future of Anti-Doping /

  • Agence Française de Lutte contre le Dopage (AFLD) - French Anti-Doping Agency
  • Anti-Doping Denmark (ADD)
  • Antidoping Norge (ADNO) - Anti-Doping Norway Antidoping Sverige - Anti-Doping Sweden (ADSE)
  • Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport (CCES)
  • Dopingautoriteit - Doping Authority Netherlands
  • Drug Free Sport New Zealand (DFSNZ) Motorsport Ireland (MI)
  • Nationale Anti Doping Agentur (NADA) - National Anti Doping Agency of Germany
  • Sport Integrity Australia (SIA)
  • Spórt Éireann - Sport Ireland
  • Suomen urheilun eettinen keskus (SUEK) - Finnish Center for Integrity in Sports (FINCIS)
  • UK Anti-Doping (UKAD)
  • United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA)


While recognizing a number of threats to the legitimacy and credibility of the anti-doping community, a dedicated group of National Anti-Doping Organisations (NADOs) have proposed the adoption of a ‘Declaration of Guiding Principles for the Future of Anti-Doping’ with a view to ensuring quality and leadership in the movement for doping-free sport.

A continuous evolvement and improvement of the anti-doping system is crucial to remain relevant and effective. With aligned and collaborative efforts, the world-wide movement for doping-free sport should be strengthened in many aspects to be better prepared for the future.

According to the Guiding Principles for the Future of Anti-Doping…

  1. ...the athletes’ voice should be given a prominent position in anti-doping, reflecting their importance and demonstrating respect for the burden of responsibilities they bear in the name of clean sport;  
  2. ...everyone in sport is entitled to the right of justice at a minimum standard, based on the principles of human rights;
  3. ...maximizing deterrence, targeted programmes and athlete engagement is key to an effective approach to education and prevention programmes in anti-doping;
  4. ...good governance for all organisations involved in anti-doping is a prerequisite for a reliable and trustworthy anti-doping community;
  5. ...all actors in anti-doping must ensure excellence, responsibility and transparency;
  6. ...separation of powers with a clear division of the roles and responsibilities is a prerequisite for accountability.

All actors in the anti-doping community have an obligation to create, uphold, and maintain the highest standards in the protection of the spirit of sport and the right of the individual athlete and other persons. A strong and independent World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is a prerequisite for an efficient pursuit of doping-free sport and a level playing-field globally. Continuous improvement should be a daily goal for all anti-doping professionals.

The guiding principles are proposed by Sport Integrity Australia, Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport, Anti Doping Denmark, Finnish Center for Integrity in Sports, French Anti-Doping Agency, National Anti Doping Agency of Germany, Sport Ireland, Doping Authority Netherlands, Drug-Free Sport New Zealand, Anti-Doping Norway, Anti-Doping Sweden, United Kingdom Anti-Doping, United States Anti-Doping Agency.

The NADOs have invited iNADO to join in and co-organise a follow-up of the guiding principles in the NADO community. In addition, the NADOs call upon everyone – athletes, NADOs, laboratories, public authorities, sport organisations, media, sponsors, and any other organisation and individual involved in sport and anti-doping – to support, promote and implement these six guiding principles for a sustainable future of anti-doping.

WADA - Results Management Professional Standard

6 Jun 2022

Results Management Professional Standard / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2022

On 6 June 2022 the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has published a first set of Professional Standards aimed at improving the level of knowledge, skills and competencies of the global anti-doping workforce. These Standards were endorsed by WADA’s Education Committee and presented to the Agency’s Executive Committee in May 2022 for review and consideration.

Developed as part of WADA’s Global Learning and Development Framework (GLDF), the initial set of Professional Standards is targeted at anti-doping practitioners in six roles:

  1. Communications and Media Relations;
  2. Education;
  3. Hearing Panels;
  4. Intelligence and Investigations;
  5. Privacy and Data Protection; and
  6. Results Management.

The Professional Standards -- available in English, French and Spanish -- were created in collaboration with stakeholders and describe: the main functions for a given anti-doping role; the expected standard of competence using performance criteria; and, the knowledge and skills required to perform the role.

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