A qualitative investigation of coaches’ doping confrontation efficacy beliefs

13 Aug 2019

A qualitative investigation of coaches’ doping confrontation efficacy beliefs / Ian D. Boardley, Jonathan Grix, Nikos Ntoumanis, Alan L. Smith

  • Psychology of Sport and Exercise 45 (2019) 101576 (November)
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2019.101576


Abstract

Objectives

To investigate the nature of doping confrontation efficacy (DCE) beliefs – as well as their antecedents and outcomes – through a qualitative examination of Sullivan, Feltz, LaForge-MacKenzie, and Hwang’s (2015) DCE model with high-level technical and strength and conditioning (S&C) coaches from athletics and rugby union.

Design

Qualitative, descriptive.

Methods

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 coaches (nmale = 15, nfemale = 6; ntechnical = 11, nS&C = 10; nathletics = 5, nrugby = 13, nrugby & athletics = 3), working at a regional, national, or international level in athletics, rugby, or both sports. Study data were analyzed deductively using content analysis techniques.

Results

Data analysis supported the relevance of all five dimensions of DCE (i.e., personal resources, initiation, legitimacy, intimacy, and expected outcomes) to coaching practice in athletics and rugby, identifying key potential antecedents (e.g., coach education) and outcomes (e.g., likelihood of confronting athletes on doping-related issues) of coach DCE beliefs relevant to one or more of the DCE sub-dimensions. Deficits in coaches’ anti-doping knowledge were also identified, supporting the need for improved anti-doping education for coaches.

Conclusion

By conducting the first qualitative examination of DCE beliefs, we enriched understanding of the DCE model and identified a range of possible antecedents and outcomes of DCE beliefs in technical and S&C coaches. Based on the results of this study, recommendations are posed for revising and expanding the DCE model. Practical recommendations are also offered for coach education.

    A systematic review investigating the behaviour change strategies in interventions to prevent misuse of anabolic steroids

    2 Nov 2017

    A systematic review investigating the behaviour change strategies in interventions to prevent misuse of anabolic steroids / Geoff Bates, Emma Begley, David Tod, Lisa Jones, Conan Leavey, Jim McVeigh

    • Journal of Health Psychology 24 (2019) 11 (September), p. 1595-1612
    • PMID: 29096544
    • DOI: 10.1177/1359105317737607


    Abstract

    We examined intervention effectiveness of strategies to prevent image- and performance-enhancing drug use. Comprehensive searches identified 14 interventions that met review inclusion criteria. Interventions were predominantly educational and delivered within school sport settings, but targeted a wide range of mediating factors. Identification of effective components was limited across studies by brief or imprecise descriptions of intervention content, lack of behavioural outcome measures and short-term follow-up times. However, studies with components in addition to information provision may be more promising. Interventions outside of sport settings are required to reflect the transition of this form of substance use to the general population.

    An evidence-based socioecological framework to understand men’s use of anabolic androgenic steroids and inform interventions in this area

    25 Jul 2018

    An evidence-based socioecological framework to understand men’s use of anabolic androgenic steroids and inform interventions in this area / Geoff Bates, David Tod, Conan Leavey, Jim McVeigh

    • Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 26 (2019) 6, p. 484-492
    • DOI: 10.1080/09687637.2018.1488947


    Abstract

    Research into men’s use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) over the past three decades has identified many factors that contribute to decision-making in this area. However, there are limited theoretical frameworks to synthesise this research and guide practice, such as interventions to prevent use or reduce health risks. To address this gap, a socioecological framework is presented based upon the international literature examining AAS use. Socioecological models recognise that individuals and behaviours exist within complex physical and social systems and are useful tools for guiding interventions to ensure consideration is given to multiple influential factors. This framework proposes that use of AAS is the result of the interaction of a range of factors at the individual, social network, institutional, community, and societal levels that are likely to change over time and with experience. Viewed through this framework, it becomes clear that AAS use can be a complex behaviour with many influential environments and relationships impacting on a diverse population in different ways and at different times. The implications of findings for engaging with people who use AAS and delivering interventions are discussed, such as the identification of important transition times and influencing norms within social groups and communities.

    Negotiating female fitness doping: gender, identity and transgressions

    3 Oct 2019

    Negotiating female fitness doping : gender, identity and transgressions / Jesper Andreasson, Thomas Johansson

    • Sport in Society 24 (2021) 3, 323-339,
    • DOI:10.1080/17430437.2019.1672152


    ABSTRACT

    On the basis of qualitatively gathered interview material and data from various postings on a pro-doping online community called Flashback, the aim of this article is to describe and analyse how female users of performance and image enhancing drugs (PIED) understand and negotiate their use in relation to gender and the body. Positioned within post-structural feminism, the results show that there is an increasing amount of knowledge that not only targets but is also developed by and for women concerning PIED use. Traditionally scholars have con-nected female PIED use more or less exclusively to female bodybuilders, but as new body and femininity ideals develop the demographics of female fitness doping are widening. Although PIED use in the context of gym and fitness culture remains primarily a masculine domain, the results point towards a development in which women are increasingly becoming more integrated into a fitness community of PIED users.

    Bodybuilding and Fitness Doping in Transition. Historical Transformations and Contemporary Challenges

    4 Mar 2019

    Bodybuilding and Fitness Doping in Transition. Historical Transformations and Contemporary Challenges / Jesper Andreasson, Thomas Johansson

    • Sociale Sciences 8 (2019) 3, 80, p. 1-14
    • DOI: 10.3390/socsci8030080


    Abstract

    This article describes and analyses the historical development of gym and fitness culture in general and doping use in this context in particular. Theoretically, the paper utilises the concept of subculture and explores how a subcultural response can be used analytically in relation to processes of cultural normalisation as well as marginalisation. The focus is on historical and symbolic negotiations that have occurred over time, between perceived expressions of extreme body cultures and sociocultural transformations in society—with a perspective on fitness doping in public discourse. Several distinct phases in the history of fitness doping are identified. First, there is an introductory phase in the mid-1950s, in which there is an optimism connected to modernity and thoughts about scientifically-engineered bodies. Secondly, in the 1960s and 70s, a distinct bodybuilding subculture is developed, cultivating previously unseen muscular male bodies. Thirdly, there is a critical phase in the 1980s and 90s, where drugs gradually become morally objectionable. The fourth phase, the fitness revolution, can be seen as a transformational phase in gym culture. The massive bodybuilding body is replaced with the well-defined and moderately muscular fitness body, but at the same time there are strong commercialised values which contribute to the development of a new doping market. Finally, it is possible to speculate on the development of a fifth phase, in which fitness doping is increasingly being filtered into mainstream gym and fitness culture, influencing the fitness doping demography.

    NADO San Marino Annual Report 2020

    5 Feb 2021

    Report Annuale Attivita' Antidoping Anno 2020 / National Anti Doping Organization San Marino (NADO San Marino). - San Marino, 2021

    NADO San Marino Annual Report 2019

    28 Jan 2020

    NADO San Marino Annual Report 2019 / National Anti Doping Organization San Marino (NADO San Marino). - San Marino, 2020

    Anti-Doping Poland Annual Report 2020

    10 Dec 2021

    Anti-Doping Poland Annual Report 2020 / Polska Agencja Antydopigowa (POLADA). - Warszawa : POLADA, 2021

    Anti-Doping Poland Annual Report 2019

    24 Sep 2020

    Anti-Doping Poland Annual Report 2019 / Polska Agencja Antydopigowa (POLADA). - Warszawa : POLADA, 2020

    Anti-Doping Poland Annual Report 2018

    28 Aug 2019

    Anti-Doping Poland Annual Report 2018 / Polska Agencja Antydopigowa (POLADA). - Warszawa : POLADA, 2019

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