Diminished cholesterol efflux mediated by HDL and coronary artery disease in young male anabolic androgenic steroid users

12 Feb 2019

Diminished cholesterol efflux mediated by HDL and coronary artery disease in young male anabolic androgenic steroid users / Francis Ribeiro de Souza, Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos, Rafael Armani Porello, Guilherme Wesley Peixoto da Fonseca, Ana Luiza Carrari Sayegh, Thaís Pinheiro Lima, Fabiana Dias Ferreira, Tiago Franco de Oliveira, Maurício Yonamine, Liliam Takayama, Rosa Maria Rodrigues Pereira, Carlos Eduardo Negrão, Marisa Passarelli, Carlos Eduardo Rochitte, Maria Janieire de Nazaré Nunes Alves. - (Atherosclerosis (2019) 283 (April); p. 100-105). - PMID: 30826541. - DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2019.02.006 _________________________________________________ Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). AAS abuse leads to a remarkable decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) plasma concentration, which could be a key factor in the atherosclerotic process. Moreover, not only the concentration of HDL, but also its functionality, plays a pivotal role in CAD. We tested the functionality of HDL by cholesterol efflux and antioxidant capacity. We also evaluated the prevalence of CAD in AAS users. METHODS: Twenty strength-trained AAS users (AASU) age 29 ± 5 yr, 20 age-matched strength-trained AAS nonusers (AASNU), and 10 sedentary controls (SC) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Functionality of HDL was evaluated by 14C-cholesterol efflux and the ability of HDL in inhibiting LDL oxidation. Coronary artery was evaluated with coronary computed tomography angiography. RESULTS: Cholesterol efflux was lower in AASU compared with AASNU and SC (20 vs. 23 vs. 24%, respectively, p < 0.001). However, the lag time for LDL oxidation was higher in AASU compared with AASNU and SC (41 vs 13 vs 11 min, respectively, p < 0.001). We found at least 2 coronary arteries with plaques in 25% of AASU. None of the AASNU and SC had plaques. The time of AAS use was negatively associated with cholesterol efflux. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that AAS abuse impairs the cholesterol efflux mediated by HDL. Long-term AAS use seems to be correlated with lower cholesterol efflux and early subclinical CAD in this population.

Perceptions of Coach Doping Confrontation Efficacy and Athlete Susceptibility to Intentional and Inadvertent Doping

30 May 2019

Perceptions of Coach Doping Confrontation Efficacy and Athlete Susceptibility to Intentional and Inadvertent Doping / Ian D. Boardley, Alan L. Smith, Nikos Ntoumanis, Daniel F. Gucciardi, Tyler S. Harris. - (Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports (2019) 30 May; p. 1-15). - PMID: 31148275. - DOI: 10.1111/sms.13489 ___________________________________________________ Abstract OBJECTIVES: We tested a conceptually-grounded model linking athlete perceptions of strength and conditioning and technical coach doping confrontation efficacy (DCE) with athletes' doping self-regulatory efficacy (SRE), doping moral disengagement (MD), and susceptibility to intentional and inadvertent doping. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, correlational. METHODS: Participants were high-level athletes (nmale = 532; nfemale = 290) recruited in Australia (n = 261), the UK (n = 300), and the USA (n = 261). All participants completed questionnaires assessing the variables alongside a variant of the randomized response technique to estimate the prevalence of doping. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of intentional doping in the sample was 13.9%. Structural equation modelling established: (a) perceptions of technical and strength and conditioning coaches' DCE positively predicted doping SRE; (b) doping SRE negatively predicted doping MD; (c) doping MD positively predicted susceptibility to intentional and inadvertent doping; and (d) the predictive effects of coach perceptions on susceptibility to doping were mediated by doping SRE and doping MD. Multisample analyses demonstrated these predictive effects were invariant between males and females and across the three countries represented. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show the conceptually-grounded model to offer extended understanding of how multiple individuals within the athlete support personnel network may influence athlete doping.

Altered erythroid-related miRNA levels as a possible novel biomarker for detection of autologous blood transfusion misuse in sport

30 May 2019

Altered erythroid-related miRNA levels as a possible novel biomarker for detection of autologous blood transfusion misuse in sport / Jessica Gasparello, Nicola Lamberti, Chiara Papi, Ilaria Lampronti, Lucia Carmela Cosenza, Enrica Fabbri, Nicoletta Bianchi, Christel Zambon, Francesca Dalla Corte, Maurizio Govoni, Roberto Reverberi, Fabio Manfredini, Roberto Gambari, Alessia Finotti. - (Transfusions (2019) 30 May; p. 1-13). - PMID: 31148196. - DOI: 10.1111/trf.15383 This project has been carried out with the support of the World Anti‐Doping Agency ___________________________________________________ Abstract BACKGROUND: Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) is a performance-enhancing method prohibited in sport; its detection is a key issue in the field of anti-doping. Among novel markers enabling ABT detection, microRNAs (miRNAs) might be considered a promising analytical tool. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied the changes of erythroid-related microRNAs following ABT, to identify novel biomarkers. Fifteen healthy trained males were studied from a population of 24 subjects, enrolled and randomized into a Transfusion (T) and a Control (C) group. Seriated blood samples were obtained in the T group before and after the two ABT procedures (withdrawal, with blood refrigerated or cryopreserved, and reinfusion), and in the C group at the same time points. Traditional hematological parameters were assessed. Samples were tested by microarray analysis of a pre-identified set of erythroid-related miRNAs. RESULTS: Hematological parameters showed moderate changes only in the T group, particularly following blood withdrawal. Among erythroid-related miRNAs tested, following ABT a pool of 7 miRNAs associated with fetal hemoglobin and regulating transcriptional repressors of gamma-globin gene was found stable in C and differently expressed in three out of six T subjects in the completed phase of ABT, independently from blood conservation. Particularly, two or more erythropoiesis-related miRNAs within the shortlist constituted of miR-126-3p, miR-144-3p, miR-191-3p, miR-197-3p, miR-486-3p, miR-486-5p, and miR-92a-3p were significantly upregulated in T subjects after reinfusion, with a person-to-person variability but with congruent changes. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a signature of potential interest for ABT detection in sports, based on the analysis of miRNAs associated with erythroid features.

Dating app use and unhealthy weight control behaviors among a sample of U.S. adults: a cross-sectional study

31 May 2019

Dating app use and unhealthy weight control behaviors among a sample of U.S. adults : a cross-sectional study / Alvin Tran, Christian Suharlim, Heather Mattie, Kirsten Davison, Madina Agénor, S. Bryn Austin. - (Journal of Eating Disorders 7 (2019) 16 (31 May); p. 1-12). - PMID: 31164984. - PMCID: PMC6543621. - DOI: 10.1186/s40337-019-0244-4 _________________________________________________ Abstract Background: Online dating has become increasingly popular over the years. Few research studies have examined the association between dating apps and disordered eating. In this study, we evaluated the association between dating app use and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs) among a sample of U.S. adults. Methods: Our sample includes 1769 adults who completed an online survey assessing dating app use and UWCBs in the past year. Survey assessed participants' self-reported frequency of using dating apps within the past 30 days and engagement in six UWCBs with the purpose of lowering weight or changing their body shape within the past 12 months. UWCBs included vomiting, laxative use, fasting, diet pill use, muscle building supplement use, and use of anabolic steroids. Results: Results of multivariate logistic regression models suggest dating app users had substantially elevated odds of UWCBs compared with non-users (odds ratios [OR] range = 2.7-16.2). These findings were supported by results of additional gender-stratified multivariate logistic regression analyses among women and men. Conclusions: This study's findings contribute to the limited literature exploring the association between dating app use and adverse health outcomes, particularly UWCBs. While additional longitudinal and representative research is needed, public health professionals ought to explore dating app use as a potential risk factor for UWCBs.

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Identification of hormone esters in injection site in muscle tissues by LC/MS/MS

2 Dec 2008

Identification of hormone esters in injection site in muscle tissues by LC/MS/MS / R.M. Costain, A.C.E. Fesser, D. McKenzie, M. Mizuno, J.D. MacNeil. - (Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment 25 (2008) 12 (December); p. 1520-1529). - PMID: 19680861. - DOI: 10.1080/02652030802192090 ___________________________________________________ Abstract The detection of hormone abuse for growth promotion in food animal production is a global concern. Initial testing for hormones in Canada was directed at the compounds approved for use in beef cattle, melengestrol acetate, trenbolone acetate and zeranol, and the banned compound diethylstilbestrol (DES). No hormonal growth promoters are approved for use in veal production in Canada. However, instances of use of trenbolone and clenbuterol were detected in Canada in the 1990s. During the development of a new analytical method for testosterone and progesterone, there were reports of suspicious injection sites being found in veal calves. Upon implementation of the method, analysis of investigative samples revealed significant residues of testosterone in some injection sites. To prove that the source of these residues was exogenous, a fully validated method for hormone esters was developed to confirm the presence of exogenous hormones in these injection sites. The QUECHERS model was employed in methods development and resulted in a simple, effective extraction technique that consisted of sample pre-homogenization, liquid/liquid partitioning, extract dilution, filtration and use of LC/MS/MS to provide detection selectivity. The result was an adaptable MS/MS confirmation technique that meets the needs of Canadian regulatory authorities to confirm the misuse of injectable testosterone, and potentially other hormones, in food animal production.

Distribution of trenbolone residues in liver and various muscle groups of heifers that received multiple implants at the recommended site of application

1 May 2008

Distribution of trenbolone residues in liver and various muscle groups of heifers that received multiple implants at the recommended site of application / James D. MacNeil, Joann Reid, Rick Fedeniuk. - (Journal of AOAC International 91 (2008) 3 (May); p. 670-674). - PMID: 18567315 ___________________________________________________ Abstract: Twenty heifers which were each administered 3 or 4 implants containing trenbolone acetate were slaughtered at 30 days post-implantation. Liquid chromatographic analyses were conducted on muscle collected from the rump, loin, shoulder, and neck, and on the liver of each animal. Residues present in liver were primarily 17-trenbolone, and the residues found in the various muscle samples were primarily 17-trenbolone. The mean concentration of 17-trenbolone in liver was 4.3 2.3 ng/g; the mean concentration of 17-trenbolone in muscle tissues was <0.4 ng/g. There was a small but statistically significant effect of the number of implants used on the mean concentration of residues in loin muscles; animals with 3 trenbolone implants had higher mean residue concentrations than animals with 4 trenbolone implants. This suggests that, though the impact of implant numbers on the mean concentration of residues in muscle tissues is negligible relative to currently generally accepted maximum residue levels, mechanisms may exist for selective distribution and retention of residues within different muscle groups.

Residues from anabolic preparations after good veterinary practice

1 Mar 2001

Residues from anabolic preparations after good veterinary practice / D.M. Hendricks, S.L. Gray, J.J. Owenby, B.R. Lackey. - (APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica 109 (2001) 4 (April); p. 273-283). - PMID: 11469498. - https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0463.2001.d01-120.x _________________________________________________ Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the endogenous concentrations of estrogens, particularly estradiol-17beta (E2beta, in edible tissues of beef cattle (females and intact and neutered males) and the concentrations of E2beta, and trenbolone beta and alpha (betaTb, alphaTb) after an E2beta and/or trenbolone acetate (TA) ear implant. Radioimmunoassays were validated for quantitation of E2beta (active isomer), E2alpha, estrone (E1), betaTb and alphaTb for bovine muscle, liver, kidney and fat tissues. The criteria of accuracy, precision, specificity and sensitivity were applied according to the standards of the U.S. Food & Drug Administration. In steer tissues, endogenous E2beta was <15 ppt, as was heifer muscle; but heifer liver and kidney were 3-fold greater. An E2beta implant in steers had no effect on muscle E2beta concentration, but increased E2beta in liver and fat 4- and 3-fold, respectively, but by 24 h post-implant removal, E2beta had fallen by half. Tissue E1 concentrations in cyclic females were similar to E2beta, but rose many fold greater than did E2beta during gestation; E2beta rose 3-fold during gestation. After E2beta/TA implant, steer tissues had E2beta concentrations equal to (for muscle and fat) and one-half (for liver) the E2beta measured in E2beta implant only steers; betaTb was in a low range (250-380 ppt) in muscle, liver and fat and alphaTb was even lower, except in liver (800-1500 ppt). An implant of TA only (no E2beta) resulted in betaTb and alphaTb concentrations 2-3-fold greater in liver, kidney and fat, but no greater in muscle than betaTb in tissues of E2beta/TA implant steers. In conclusion, anabolic implants in steers resulted in tissue E2beta concentrations less than the FDA allowable increment and betaTb in the lowest quartile (0.25) of a part per billion 30 days after implant.

Hormone contents in peripheral tissues after correct and off-label use of growth promoting hormones in cattle

6 Dec 2000

Hormone contents in peripheral tissues after correct and off-label use of growth promoting hormones in cattle: effect of the implant preparations Filaplix-H, Raglo, Synovex-H and Synovex Plus / Iris G. Lange, Andreas Daxenberger, Heinrich H.D. Meyer. - (APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica 109 (2001) 1 (January); p. 53-65). - PMID: 11297194. - DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0463.2001.tb00014.x _________________________________________________ Abstract Certain hormonal growth promoters are licensed in several beef producing countries outside the European Union (EU). Use in compliance with Good Veterinary Practice is mandatory. As risk assessment of hormone residues in animal tissues up to now has neglected potential off-label use, the present study dealt with two topics: 1) multiple treatment with the implant preparations Finaplix-H (200 mg trenbolone acetate), Ralgro (36 mg zeranol) and Synovex-H (200 mg testosterone propionate plus 20 mg estradiol benzoate) in heifers (1-fold, 3-fold and 10-fold dose), and 2) non-approved treatment of female veal calves (1-fold dose of Synovex-H or Synovex Plus with 200 mg trenbolone acetate plus 28 mg estradiol benzoate). Residues of estradiol-17beta, estradiol-17alpha, estrone and testosterone, trenbolone-17beta, trenbolone-17alpha and trendione or zeranol, respectively, were measured in loin, liver, kidney and peri-renal fat by high performance liquid chromatography/enzyme immunoassay (HPLC/EIA) after liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase clean-up. The hormone residues in the multiple-dose experiments were dose-dependent and partially exceeded the threshold values: in the liver in one animal after 3-fold dose and in two animals after 10-fold dose of Finaplix-H, and in the liver and kidney after 3-fold and 10-fold dose of Synovex-H. Mean hormone residues in calves were mainly below those of heifers and did not infringe threshold values.

ISU 2019 ISU vs Anastasia Shakun

3 Apr 2019

In December 2018 the International Skating Union (ISU) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Russian Athlete Anastasia Shakun after her sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Furosemide. After notification the Athlete gave a prompt admission, denied the intentional use, filed a statement in her defence, accepted a provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by the ISU. Here the ISU accepted the Athlete’s explanation that the substance was used prior to the competition for medical reasons because of an eye swelling and under advise given in a pharmacy while she was unaware that this substance was on the prohibited list. Therefore the ISU Disciplinary Commission decides on 3 April 2019 to impose a 1 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the sample collection, i.e. on 10 November 2018.

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CAS OG_AD_2018_01 ISU vs Kei Saito - Settlement

29 Jan 2019

CAS ADD 18/01 International Skating Union (ISU) v. Kei Saito Termination Order Mr Ken Saito is a Japanesese Athlete competing in the Short Track Speed Skater event at the 2018 PyeongChang Olympic Winter Games. In a Partial Award the Sole Arbitrator of the CAS Anti-Doping Division Panel (CAS ADD) decided on 20 September 2018 that the Athlete committed an anti-doping rule violation after he tested positive for the prohibited substance Acetazolamide as reported by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). In this case the procedure with the IOC ended, but the procedure continued between the International Skating Union (ISU) and the Athlete. Hereafter in October 2018 the Athlete appealed the CAS ADD Partial Award with the CAS Appeal Arbitration Division which was considered inadmissible and dismissed on 14 November 2018. The procedure with the ISU in the CAS ADD case against the Athlete was reassumed. In December 2018 the Athlete filed evidence in his defence demonstrating that positive test was the result of a contaminated product. ISU accepted this evidence and deems that the Athlete established no significant, but only a light degree of fault or negligence for the anti-doping rule violation. The ISU imposed only a reprimand as adequate and proportionate sanction which was accepted by the Athlete. A settlement was reached between the Parties in this case and the CAS ADD was informed by the ISU on 15 January 2019 that the ISU withdrew it claims in this procedure. Therefore the Sole Arbitrator of the CAS Anti-Doping Division decides on 29 January 2019 that: 1.) The procedure CAS ADD 18/01 International Skating Union (ISU) v. Kei Saito is terminated. 2.) The present Award is rendered without costs.

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