Substance use and misuse among Slovenian table tennis players

8 Feb 2010

Substance use and misuse among Slovenian table tennis players / Miran Kondric, Damir Sekulic, Gordana Furjan Mandic. - (Substance Use & Misuse 45 (2010) 4; p. 543-553)

  • PMID: 20141464
  • DOI: 10.3109/10826080903452553


Substance use and misuse (SU&M) is regularly studied in sports, but we have found no such data for table tennis. We have studied SU&M in athletes competing at the Slovenian Nationals 2008-2009 (responding rate was 100%; 50 males and 29 females; aged 18 years or older). The anonymous questionnaire for studying SU&M and corresponding educational, socio-demographic, and sport factors was used. More than 90% of all the athletes included in our study do not rely on coaches' and/or physicians' opinion regarding nutritional supplements and doping. Chi-square test revealed higher prevalence of binge drinking, cigarette smoking, and potential doping behavior in males. In both genders, with the advancement of the sport status, the probability for potential doping behavior increases. In conclusion, we strongly suggest permanent SU&M educational programs for table tennis athletes as well as for their coaches and physicians.

FEI 2020 FEI vs Abraham Gaspar Ojeda Serrano

30 Jun 2021

In April 2020 International Equestrian Federation (FEI) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Mexican rider Abraham Gaspa Ojeda Serrano after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Clenbuterol.

Previously the samples of 4 equestrian athletes were collected by the Mexican Anti-Doping Agency in June 2019, yet they were never analysed in the Mexican Lab. After closure of the Mexican Lab these samples were transferred to the Montreal Lab. Analysis of the Athlete's sample revealed an Adverse Analytical Finding for Clenbuterol and for the 3 other equesterian athletes an Atypical Finding for this substance.

After notification in April 2020 a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete filed a statement in his defence. In this case there where delays in the proceedings attributed to the Athlete due to his continued failure to respond and to attend the hearings to be held via videoconference. Finally the first FEI Tribunal hearing attended by the Athlete took place in June 2021.

The Athlete accepted the test result and denied the intentional use of the substance. He argued that his ingestion of contaminated meat had caused the positive test result whereas Mexico is a well known country facing problems of meat contamination from Clenbuterol. Prior he was unaware that this could cause problems with doping.

With evidence he asserted that 3 other athletes had tested positive for Clenbuterol while they had trained and dined together at the same Equestrian Center. Supported by witness statements the Athlete testifed that at the relevant time he ate frequently high quantities of meat products in Mexico City and in the Equestrian Center. The Athlete excluded other sources that could have caused the positive test result.

The Equestrian Center in question conducted an investigation but could not provide any information anymore about the meat served between February and May 2019. The Equestian Center had started to educate the riders about meat contamination and a new meat supplier was selected, which could produce inspection results of the meat sold in order to prevent contamination.

FEI concludes that the mentioned 3 Atypical Findings to Clenbuterol were compatible with ingestion of meat contamination with Clenbuterol and it had closed the cases. Yet FEI regards that the concentration in the Athlete's sample was significantly higher. Furher FEI acknowledged that the significant delays in the Laboratory Notification may have prevented the Athlete to find evidence in support of his case.

Considering the opinion of their Expert Witness FEI accepts that the meat contamination scenario is scientifically plausible. Accordingly FEI finds that the Athlete on a balance of probabilities has demonstrated that the substance Clenbuterol had entered his system through the ingestion of meat contaminated with Clenbuterol.

In view of the evidence and witness statements in this case the Tribunal accepts that the meat the Athlete had consumed, on a balance of probabilities, was most likely contaminated with Clenbuterol. The Tribunal deems that the Athlete established, on a balance of probability, that the violation was not intentional and that acted with No Significant Fault or Negligence.

Therefore the FEI Tribunal decides on 30 June 2021 to impose a fine and a 16 month period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 2 April 2020.

Adverse effects and potential benefits among selective androgen receptor modulators users: a cross-sectional survey

1 Sep 2021

Adverse effects and potential benefits among selective androgen receptor modulators users : a cross-sectional survey / Iakov V. Efimenko, David Valancy, Justin M. Dubin, Ranjith Ramasamy. - (International Journal of Impotence Research (2021) 1 September)

  • PMID: 34471228
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41443-021-00465-0


Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a class of androgen receptor ligands that bind androgen receptors and display tissue selective activation of androgenic signaling. SARMs have selective anabolic effects on muscle and bone, and were originally synthesized for treatment of muscle wasting conditions, osteoporosis, breast cancer. To date, no SARM has been clinically approved and little is known about the beneficial effects and other adverse effects on users. We examined the adverse effects and potential benefits of SARMs amongst users. We performed an internet survey assessing the demographics of users via a 32-question survey. Using reddit as a platform, we distributed the survey through various subreddits that included potential SARMs users. Out of the 520 responses, 343 participants admitted having used SARMs. Most were males (98.5%), between the ages of 18-29 (72.3%). More than 90% of users acquired SARMs via the internet and did not consult with a physician. More than half of SARMs users experienced side effects including mood swings, decreased testicular size, and acne. More than 90% of men reported increased muscle mass and were satisfied with their SARMs usage. Despite having seemingly positive effects, more than 50% of SARMs users report significant adverse effects. Chi square was the main method of statistical analysis. Future studies should focus on comprehensive reproductive evaluation of men using SARMs.

Multiple hepatocellular adenomas and renal cell carcinoma associated with anabolic androgenic steroids

9 Jan 2021

Множественные гепатоцеллюлярные аденомы и почечноклеточный рак, ассоциированные с приемом бодибилдером анаболических андрогенных стероидов [Multiple hepatocellular adenomas and renal cell carcinoma associated with anabolic androgenic steroids] / M.M. Morozova, E.I. Ivanova, N.K. Chardarov, O.V. Dolzhanskiy, G.A. Shatveryan, Yu.R. Kamalov. - (Khirurgiya (2021) 10; p. 105-109

  • PMID: 34608788
  • DOI: 10.17116/hirurgia2021101105
  • Article in Russian

Abstract in English

The authors report a rare case of combination of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma Grade 2 pT2aN0 with multiple hepatocellular adenomas in a 31-year-old bodybuilder who received anabolic androgenic steroids at high doses for 8 years. According to MRI data, over 15 liver adenomas and tumor in the lower segment of the right kidney were detected. The patients underwent laparascopic resection of the right kidney and liver segments 2, 3 and 4 with large adenomas. Histological study and immunohistochemistry revealed no malignancy signs in hepatocellular adenomas. Nuclear β-catenin expression was absent. Kidney tumor had a structure of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. The patient is currently being followed-up due to residual small liver adenomas. In our opinion, liver adenomatosis and renal cancer have the same cause in this case (chronic toxic effect of androgens).

Abstract in Russian

Приведен редкий случай сочетания хромофобного рака почки Grade 2 (pT2aN0 по системе TMN) со множественными гепатоцеллюлярными аденомами печени у 31-летнего бодибилдера, который на протяжении 8 лет в больших дозах принимал анаболические андрогенные стероиды. При МРТ выявлено более 15 аденом печени, а также образование в нижнем сегменте правой почки. Больному проведена одномоментная операция: лапараскопическая резекция правой почки и резекция II, III и IV сегментов печени с наиболее крупными образованиями. При гистологическом и иммуногистохимическом исследованиях гепатоцеллюлярные аденомы не имели признаков малигнизации, ядерная β-катениновая экспрессия отсутствовала, образование почки расценено как хромофобный почечноклеточный рак. В настоящее время пациент находится под динамическим контролем онколога и хирурга в связи с необходимостью наблюдения за сохранившимися в паренхиме печени аденомами. Сочетанное поражение печени в виде аденоматоза и рака почки у данного пациента следует рассматривать как единый этиопатологический процесс, обусловленный хроническим токсическим влиянием андрогенов.

Effects of Appearance- and Performance-Enhancing Drugs on Personality Traits

24 Sep 2021

Effects of Appearance- and Performance-Enhancing Drugs on Personality Traits / Simona Zaami, Adele Minutillo, Ascanio Sirignano, Enrico Marinelli. - (Frontiers in Psychiatry 12 (2021) 730167 (24 September); p. 1-7) 

  • PMID: 34630182
  • PMCID: PMC8497711
  • DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.730167


Appearance- and performance-enhancing drugs (APEDs) are commonly used by adolescents and young adults in an effort to improve not only athletic performance but also physical and mental efficiency and sexual appearance. The rationale for using these drugs is grounded in the perceived importance of external appearance, the quest for health and youth, and the urge to boost one's sexual performances. Although APED users tend to be quite moderate overall, some specific subpopulations can display pathological use associated with high-risk behaviors. A wide and diverse range of APEDs is now easily accessible to almost anyone through backdoor online avenues. Common APEDs include anabolic-androgenic steroids, non-steroidal anabolics, anorectics, diuretics and ergo/thermogenics, nootropics or "cognition enhancers," licit and illicit psychostimulants, and finally, sexual enhancers. The use of APEDs appears linked to several psychopathological disorders of unclear prevalence, e.g., body image disorders and eating disorders, perfectionism, but also depression and loneliness. The role of personality traits related to APED use has been investigated in adolescents and young adults, in elite and amateur athletes, and in chemsexers and associated with the above-reported personality traits. The studies herein analyzed show that APED consumption in the general population is quickly growing into a public health concern. It is therefore essential to launch prevention and intervention projects aimed at promoting safe instrumental use of the body, not only in sports disciplines but also among the general population, and to promote psychological aid procedures for people with substance use issues, depression and anxiety, and body image disorders.

Enhancing the Self: Amateur Bodybuilders Making Sense of Experiences With Appearance and Performance-Enhancing Drugs

11 Jun 2021

Enhancing the Self: Amateur Bodybuilders Making Sense of Experiences With Appearance and Performance-Enhancing Drugs / Juraj Macho, Jiri Mudrak, Pavel Slepicka. - (Frontiers in Psychology 12 (2021) 648467 (11 June); p. 1-14)

  • PMID: 34177704
  • PMCID: PMC8232052
  • DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.648467


In this paper, we implemented a methodological framework of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) and a theoretical conceptualization of multiple selves to explore the subjective accounts of six amateur bodybuilders using appearance- and performance-enhancing drugs (APEDs). The participants made sense of their bodybuilding careers and experiences with APEDs in a way that showed a multiplicity and complexity of reasons for using APEDs, which stemmed from tensions they perceived between the context of bodybuilding and other life domains. The participants' reasons for the use of APEDs included not only enhancing their body, appearance and performance but also enhancing other subjectively important psychological characteristics, such as agency and self-control, the development of knowledge and expertise, sense of meaning, well-being, and quality of life. In the analysis, we integrated these themes through the concept of the "extraordinary self," based on which our participants strived for self-actualization through bodybuilding and the use of APEDs. In the sense making of our participants, a potential "exit point" subverting their APED use emerged from a tension between such "extraordinary selves" and the "ordinary selves" through which they perceived APEDs as preventing them from living normal, balanced lives outside the context of bodybuilding. However, success in balancing the two selves also created the possibility of the future use of APEDs.

Does Legislating Against Doping in Sports Make Sense? Comparing Sweden and the U.S. Suggests Not

22 Feb 2014

Does Legislating Against Doping in Sports Make Sense? Comparing Sweden and the U.S. Suggests Not / Johan Lindholm. - (Virginia Sports and Entertainment Law Journal 13 (2013) 1 (Fall); p. 21-34)


Both policy makers and sport stakeholders have fought against doping since the 1960’s but largely separately from each other. In light of recent events, political discussion, and academic debate, this article considers the expediency of using legislation to fight doping in sports. Building upon and comparing experiences in the U.S. and in Sweden, this article concludes that increased governmental involvement is undesirable from both the policy makers’ and the sport stakeholders’ perspectives. The reasons for this conclusion are, primarily, (i) that they are driven by different aims, (ii) that they differ in what they consider doping, (iii) that policy makers may push rules in sports in an unwanted direction, (iv) that expanded government involvement increases the likelihood of fundamental rights challenges to sport rules, and (v) that there are alternative ways of enhancing existing rules’ efficiency.

Keywords: Sports, Sports law, Doping, Fundamental rights, WADA, IOC, steroids, EPO, hGH

Detection of modafinil in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

29 Jun 2005

Detection of modafinil in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry / Ying Lung Tseng, Victor Uralets, Chien-Tzong Lin, Fan-Hsin Kuo. - (Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 39 (2005) 5 (4 October); p. 1042-1045)

  • PMID: 15993026
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2005.04.050


The main purpose of this study was to detect and quantify modafinil in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Urinary samples were collected from three healthy male volunteers following oral administration of a clinical dose (100 mg) of modafinil (Provigil). Urine specimens were extracted with t-butylmethyl ether (TBME) prior to GC-MS analysis. The results demonstrate that the chromatographic characteristics and the mass spectrum of the unchanged parent drug extracted from urine samples were identical to that obtained from the authentic standard. The times for the unchanged modafinil to reach peak concentration in the urine of the three volunteers were at 2 h (6.14 microg/mL), 4 h (9.93 microg/mL) and 8 h (3.58 microg/mL), respectively. Total clearance occurred in approximately 48-72 h with 2-5% eliminated through urine as unchanged modafinil. The present study demonstrates that modafinil is detectable in the absence of hydrolysis and derivatization steps.

Determination of modafinil in plasma and urine by reversed phase high-performance liquid-chromatography

23 Dec 2004

Determination of modafinil in plasma and urine by reversed phase high-performance liquid-chromatography / Harvey A. Schwertner, Suk Bin Kong. - (Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 37 (2005) 3 (9 March); p. 475-479)

  • PMID: 15740906
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2004.11.014


Modafinil (Provigil) is a new wake-promoting drug that is being used for the management of excessive sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy. It has pharmacological properties similar to that of amphetamine, but without some of the side effects associated with amphetamine-like stimulants. Since modafinil has the potential to be abused, accurate drug-screening methods are needed for its analysis. In this study, we developed a high-performance liquid-chromatographic procedure (HPLC) for the quantitative analysis of modafinil in plasma and urine. (Phenylthio)acetic acid was used as an internal standard for the analysis of both plasma and urine. Modafinil was extracted from urine and plasma with ethyl acetate and ethyl acetate-acetic acid (100:1, v/v), respectively, and analyzed on a C18 reverse phase column with methanol-water-acetic acid (500:500:1, v/v) as the mobile phase. Recoveries from urine and plasma were 80.0 and 98.9%, respectively and the limit of quantitation was 0.1 microg/mL at 233 nm. Forty-eight 2-h post-dose urine samples from sham controls and from individuals taking 200 or 400 mg of modafinil were analyzed without knowledge of drug administration. All 16-placebo urine samples and all 32 2-h post-dose urine samples were correctly classified. The analytical procedure is accurate and reproducible and can be used for therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacokinetic studies, and drug abuse screening.

Prolonged stimulation of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I secretion by CJC-1295, a long-acting analog of GH-releasing hormone, in healthy adults

1 Mar 2006

Prolonged stimulation of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I secretion by CJC-1295, a long-acting analog of GH-releasing hormone, in healthy adults / Sam L. Teichman, Ann Neale, Betty Lawrence, Catherine Gagnon, Jean-Paul Castaigne, Lawrence A. Frohman. - (The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 91 (2006) 3 (1 March); p. 799-805) 

  • PMID: 16352683
  • DOI: 10.1210/jc.2005-1536


Context: Therapeutic use of GHRH to enhance GH secretion is limited by its short duration of action.

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetic profile, pharmacodynamic effects, and safety of CJC-1295, a long-acting GHRH analog.

Design: The study design was two randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, ascending dose trials with durations of 28 and 49 d.

Setting: The study was performed at two investigational sites.

Participants: Healthy subjects, ages 21-61 yr, were studied.

Interventions: CJC-1295 or placebo was administered sc in one of four ascending single doses in the first study and in two or three weekly or biweekly doses in the second study.

Main outcome measures: The main outcome measures were peak concentrations and area under the curve of GH and IGF-I; standard pharmacokinetic parameters were used for CJC-1295.

Results: After a single injection of CJC-1295, there were dose-dependent increases in mean plasma GH concentrations by 2- to 10-fold for 6 d or more and in mean plasma IGF-I concentrations by 1.5- to 3-fold for 9-11 d. The estimated half-life of CJC-1295 was 5.8-8.1 d. After multiple CJC-1295 doses, mean IGF-I levels remained above baseline for up to 28 d. No serious adverse reactions were reported.

Conclusions: Subcutaneous administration of CJC-1295 resulted in sustained, dose-dependent increases in GH and IGF-I levels in healthy adults and was safe and relatively well tolerated, particularly at doses of 30 or 60 microg/kg. There was evidence of a cumulative effect after multiple doses. These data support the potential utility of CJC-1295 as a therapeutic agent.

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