FIFA 2021 FIFA vs Sylvain Gbohouo

27 Apr 2022

in December 2021 the International Football Federation (FIFA) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Ivorian football player Sylvain Gbohouo after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Trimetazidine. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete filed a statement in his defence and he was heard for the FIFA Disciplinary Committee.

The Athlete accepted the test result and denied the intentional use of the substance. He explained with medical evidence that he suffered from and eye diseas and used prescribed medication Vastarel as treatment. He asserted that he and his ophtalmologist were unaware that it contained the prohibited substance Trimetazidine.

The Athlete challenged the classification of Trimetazidine on the Prohibited List and asserted that he had not been able to request the analysis of the B-sample. Further he argued that the strict liability rule in doping related mattters violates the presumption of innocence and thus is contrary to the ECHR.

The FIFA Disciplinary Committee assessed the Athlete's objections and deems that:

  • Under the FIFA ADR 2021 it is competent regarding anti-doping rule violations and the imposition of sanctions.
  • The FIFA ADR clearly contains a reference to the WADC Prohibited List and makes it clear that all players are bound by this list.
  • The Court of Arbitration (CAS) has constantly applied the principle of strict liability as confirmed by the Swiss Federal Tribunal.
  • The 12 hour time limit to request analysis of the B sample started when the Athlete was notified on 28 December 2021 while he was with the Ivorian National team in Saudi Arabia.
  • The presence of the prohibited substance Trimetazidine has been established in the Athlete's sample and accordingly under the FIFA ADR that he committed an anti-doping rule violation.

In view of the medical evidence the Committee accepts that the Athlete's violation was not intentional due to the medication prescribed by an ophthalmologist. Yet, he failed to check his medication and shifted the responsibility of his violation on the doctor / ophtalmologist who prescribed the medication Vastarel. Considering the Athlete's conduct in this case the Committee concludes that he acted with a normal degree of fault rather than significant.

Therefore the FIFA Disciplinary Committee decides on 27 April 2022 to impose an 18 month period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 23 December 2021.

WADA - Performance-Enhancing Drug Trafficking on the Dark Web

17 Jun 2022

Performance-Enhancing Drug Trafficking on the Dark Web / David Décary-Hétu; University of Montreal; World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) . - Montreal : WADA, 2022


A year-long research project led by the World Anti-Doping Agency’s (WADA’s) independent Intelligence and Investigations (I&I) Department into the extent and nature of the trafficking of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) on the dark web has concluded that it is a marginal activity and very unlikely to be a significant source of drugs for high-level athletes or coaches.

This study was led by WADA I&I’s Confidential Information Unit in collaboration with the Agency’s Science Department and Professor David Décary-Hétu from the University of Montreal’s School of Criminology in Quebec, Canada. It was initiated in an effort to better understand the extent of PED trafficking on the dark web and to assess the type and quality of PEDs being trafficked there.

The main conclusions of the study reveal:

  • It is very unlikely that high-level athletes would use this source for PED purchases; it attracts more low-level athletes, such as amateur or non-competitive bodybuilders.
  • PED trafficking appears to be a marginal activity, both in absolute numbers and relative to the overall clear web and dark web underground economy. PED purchases represent only a small fraction of all dark web marketplace listings.
  • Dark web PED trafficking favors small scale rather than bulk purchasing.
  • There is no organized community of users exchanging information – the clear web remains a more active marketplace for the buying and selling of PEDs.
  • Laboratory testing data suggests products are often mislabeled or contain major discrepancies in terms of their concentration. In 83% of transactions carried out for this study, the product and/or concentration received was not as advertised.
  • Although significantly smaller in scope than the clear web, PED trafficking on the dark web appears to operate unchecked. The dark web affords actors the advantage of anonymity, which combined with weak regulations and a lack of enforcement, allows dark web PED suppliers the freedom to operate with relative impunity.

Testosterone dose-response relationships in healthy young men

1 Dec 2001

Testosterone dose-response relationships in healthy young men / S. Bhasin, L. Woodhouse, R Casaburi, A.B. Singh, D. Bhasin, N. Berman, X. Chen, K.E. Yarasheski, L. Magliano, C. Dzekov, J. Dzekov, R. Bross, J. Phillips, I. Sinha-Hikim, R. Shen, T.W. Storer

  • American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 281 (2001) 6 (December), p. E1172-E1181
  • PMID: 11701431
  • DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.2001.281.6.E1172


Abstract

Testosterone increases muscle mass and strength and regulates other physiological processes, but we do not know whether testosterone effects are dose dependent and whether dose requirements for maintaining various androgen-dependent processes are similar. To determine the effects of graded doses of testosterone on body composition, muscle size, strength, power, sexual and cognitive functions, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), plasma lipids, hemoglobin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels, 61 eugonadal men, 18-35 yr, were randomized to one of five groups to receive monthly injections of a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, to suppress endogenous testosterone secretion, and weekly injections of 25, 50, 125, 300, or 600 mg of testosterone enanthate for 20 wk. Energy and protein intakes were standardized. The administration of the GnRH agonist plus graded doses of testosterone resulted in mean nadir testosterone concentrations of 253, 306, 542, 1,345, and 2,370 ng/dl at the 25-, 50-, 125-, 300-, and 600-mg doses, respectively. Fat-free mass increased dose dependently in men receiving 125, 300, or 600 mg of testosterone weekly (change +3.4, 5.2, and 7.9 kg, respectively). The changes in fat-free mass were highly dependent on testosterone dose (P = 0.0001) and correlated with log testosterone concentrations (r = 0.73, P = 0.0001). Changes in leg press strength, leg power, thigh and quadriceps muscle volumes, hemoglobin, and IGF-I were positively correlated with testosterone concentrations, whereas changes in fat mass and plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were negatively correlated. Sexual function, visual-spatial cognition and mood, and PSA levels did not change significantly at any dose. We conclude that changes in circulating testosterone concentrations, induced by GnRH agonist and testosterone administration, are associated with testosterone dose- and concentration-dependent changes in fat-free mass, muscle size, strength and power, fat mass, hemoglobin, HDL cholesterol, and IGF-I levels, in conformity with a single linear dose-response relationship. However, different androgen-dependent processes have different testosterone dose-response relationships.

The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men

4 Jul 1996

The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men / Shalender Bhasin, Thomas W. Storer, Nancy Berman, Carlos Callegari, Brenda Clevenger, Jeffrey Phillips, Thomas J. Bunnell, Ray Tricker, Aida Shirazi, Richard Casaburi

  • New England Journal of Medicine 335 (1996) 1 (4 July), p. 1-7
  • PMID: 8637535
  • DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199607043350101


Abstract

Background: Athletes often take androgenic steroids in an attempt to increase their strength. The efficacy of these substances for this purpose is unsubstantiated, however.

Methods: We randomly assigned 43 normal men to one of four groups: placebo with no exercise; testosterone with no exercise; placebo plus exercise; and testosterone plus exercise. The men received injections of 600 mg of testosterone enanthate or placebo weekly for 10 weeks. The men in the exercise groups performed standardized weight-lifting exercises three times weekly. Before and after the treatment period, fat-free mass was determined by underwater weighing, muscle size was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and the strength of the arms and legs was assessed by bench-press and squatting exercises, respectively.

Results: Among the men in the no-exercise groups, those given testosterone had greater increases than those given placebo in muscle size in their arms (mean [+/-SE] change in triceps area, 424 +/- 104 vs. -81 +/- 109 square millimeters; P < 0.05) and legs (change in quadriceps area, 607 +/- 123 vs. -131 +/- 111 square millimeters; P < 0.05) and greater increases in strength in the bench-press (9 +/- 4 vs. -1 +/- 1 kg, P < 0.05) and squatting exercises (16 +/- 4 vs. 3 +/- 1 kg, P < 0.05). The men assigned to testosterone and exercise had greater increases in fat-free mass (6.1 +/- 0.6 kg) and muscle size (triceps area, 501 +/- 104 square millimeters; quadriceps area, 1174 +/- 91 square millimeters) than those assigned to either no-exercise group, and greater increases in muscle strength (bench-press strength, 22 +/- 2 kg; squatting-exercise capacity, 38 +/- 4 kg) than either no-exercise group. Neither mood nor behavior was altered in any group.

Conclusions: Supraphysiologic doses of testosterone, especially when combined with strength training, increase fat-free mass and muscle size and strength in normal men.

Compared interest between hair analysis and urinalysis in doping controls. Results for amphetamines, corticosteroids and anabolic steroids in racing cyclists

3 Jan 2000

Compared interest between hair analysis and urinalysis in doping controls. Results for amphetamines, corticosteroids and anabolic steroids in racing cyclists / Y. Gaillard, F. Vayssette, G. Pépin

  • Forensic Science International 107 (2000) 1-3 (10 January), p. 361-379
  • PMID: 10689587
  • DOI: 10.1016/s0379-0738(99)00179-6


Abstract

In France during a famous bicycle race, the newspapers documented the degree in which doping seemed to be supervised in some teams by managers and doctors. Use of anabolic steroids and other substances was officially banned in the mid-seventies by sports authorities. This policy has been enforced through urine testing before competition. It is well known, however, that a latency period is all that is necessary to defeat these tests. Nevertheless, hair analysis could be a promising tool when testing for periods that are not accessible to urinalysis any more. We have developed different sensitive methods for testing hair for amphetamines, anabolic steroids and their esters and corticosteroids. For amphetamines, 50 mg of hair were digested with 1 M NaOH, extracted with ethyl acetate, derivatized with TFA and analyzed by gas chromatography positive chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. For corticosteroids, 50 mg of powdered hair were treated with methanol in an ultrasonic bath and subsequently purified using a C18 solid phase extraction column. Analysis was realized by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry. For anabolic steroids and their esters, 100 mg of powdered hair were treated with methanol in an ultrasonic bath for extraction of esters, then alkaline digested with 1 M NaOH for an optimum recovery of other drugs. The two liquid preparations were subsequently extracted with ethyl acetate, pooled, then finally highly purified using a twin solid phase extraction on aminopropyl and silica cartridges. Residue was derivatized with MSTFA prior to injection. Analysis was conducted by gas chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Thirty cyclists were sampled and tested both in hair and in urine. Amphetamine was detected 10 times in hair (out of 19 analyses) compared to 6 times in urine (out of 30 analyses). Corticosteroids were detected 5 times in hair (methylprednisolone 1 case, triamcinolone acetonide 3 cases and hydrocortisone acetate 1 case) in hair (out of 12 analyses) compared to 12 times (triamcinolone acetonide 10 cases and betamethasone 2 cases) in urine (out of 30 analyses). Anabolic steroids were detected twice (nandrolone 1 case, and testosterone undecanoate 1 case) in hair (out of 25 analyses) compared to none in urine (out of 30 analyses).

Gas chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric determination of anabolic steroids and their esters in hair. Application in doping control and meat quality control

29 Nov 1999

Gas chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric determination of anabolic steroids and their esters in hair. Application in doping control and meat quality control / Y. Gaillard, F. Vayssette, A. Balland, G. Pépin

  • Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications 735 (1999) 2 (10 December), p. 189-205
  • PMID: 10670734
  • DOI: 10.1016/s0378-4347(99)00416-8


Abstract

We have developed a powerful and simple sensitive method for testing hair for anabolic steroids and their esters. A 100-mg amount of powdered hair was treated with methanol in an ultrasonic bath for extraction of esters, then alkaline digested with 1 M NaOH for an optimum recovery of other drugs. The two liquid preparations were subsequently extracted with ethyl acetate, pooled, then finally highly purified using a twin solid-phase extraction on amino and silica cartridges. The residue was derivatized with N-methyl-N(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoracetamide (MSTFA) prior to injection. Analysis was conducted by gas chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The generally chosen parent ion was the molecular ion while two daughter ions were selected for each compound with collision energies ranging from -16 to -21 eV. Internal standards were nandrolone d3 for non-esterified drugs and testosterone phenyl propionate for esters. The limits of detection calculated from an analysis of the blanks (n=30) were 0.08 pg/mg for nandrolone, 6.20 pg/mg for boldenone, 0.07 pg/mg for methyl testosterone, 0.15 pg/mg for ethinyl estradiol, 2.10 pg/mg for metandienone, 0.86 pg/mg for testosterone propionate, 0.95 pg/mg for testosterone cypionate, 1.90 pg/mg for nandrolone decanoate, 3.10 pg/mg for testosterone decanoate and 4.80 pg/mg for testosterone undecanoate. Application to doping control has been demonstrated. In a series of 18 sportsmen, two tested positive for anabolic steroids in hair whereas urinalysis was negative for both of them. The first positive case was nandrolone and the second case concerned the identification of testosterone undecanoate. Measured in 10 white males aged between 22 and 31 years, the testosterone concentration was in the range 1.7-9.2 pg/mg (mean=5.0 pg/mg). The method was also applied in meat quality control. Of the 187 analyses realized based upon hair and urine sampling in slaughter houses, 23 were positive for anabolic steroids in hair: one case for boldenone, one case for metandienone, two cases for testosterone propionate, three cases for nandrolone, five cases for testosterone decanoate and 11 cases for methyl testosterone. In the meantime, urinalysis was always negative for these drugs or their metabolites.

Development and validation of a multi-residue method for the detection of a wide range of hormonal anabolic compounds in hair using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

25 Nov 2006

Development and validation of a multi-residue method for the detection of a wide range of hormonal anabolic compounds in hair using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry / Lauriane Rambaud, Fabrice Monteau, Yoann Deceuninck, Emmanuelle Bichon, François André, Bruno Le Bizec

  • Analytica Chimica Acta 586 (2007) 1-2 (14 March), 93-104
  • PMID: 17386700
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2006.11.048


Abstract

The monitoring of anabolic steroid residues in hair is undoubtedly one of the most efficient strategies to demonstrate the long-term administration of these molecules in meat production animals. A multi-residue sample preparation procedure was developed and validated for 28 steroids. A 100 mg hair sample was grinded into powder and extracted at 50 degrees C with methanol. After acidic hydrolysis and extraction with ethyl acetate, phenolsteroids, such as estrogens, resorcyclic acid lactones and stilbens in one hand, are separated from androgens and progestagens in the other hand. Solid phase extractions were performed before applying a specific derivatisation for each compound sub-group. Detection and identification were achieved using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with acquisition in the selected reaction monitoring mode after electron ionisation. The method was validated according to the 2002/657/EC guideline. Decision limits (CCalpha) for main steroids were in the 0.1-10 microg kg(-1) range.

Multi residue screening of intact testosterone esters and boldenone undecylenate in bovine hair using liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

21 Nov 2005

Multi residue screening of intact testosterone esters and boldenone undecylenate in bovine hair using liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry / Michel W.F. Nielen, Johan J.P. Lasaroms, Patrick P.J. Mulder, Johan Van Hende, J. Hans A. van Rhijn, Maria J. Groot

  • Journal of Chromatography B 830 (2006) 1 (2 January), p. 126-134
  • PMID: 16301005
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2005.10.028


Abstract

The abuse of esters of natural androgenic steroids in cattle fattening and sports is hard to control via routine urine testing. The esters are rapidly hydrolysed in vivo into substances which are also endogenously present in urine. In veterinary control strange findings of 17beta-testosterone and 17alpha-testosterone in urine are often ignored because of the lack of statistically sound reference data of naturally occurring levels. An interesting alternative for inconclusive urine analyses in veterinary control can be provided by the analysis of the administered steroids themselves, i.e. the analysis of intact steroid esters in hair. Unfortunately, the analysis of intact steroid esters is complicated not only by the vulnerability of the esters which precludes alkaline hydrolysis of the hair, but also by the wide polarity range of short and long-chain esters yielding very poor recoveries for either the one or the other. In this study, a multi-steroid esters LC/MS/MS screening method is presented for trace analysis of the synthetic intact esters of 17beta-testosterone and the undecylenate ester of 17beta-boldenone in bovine hair. The method, requiring only 200 mg of pulverised hair, features a mild digestion procedure using tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP) and the use of four deuterium-labelled steroid esters as internal standards covering the wide polarity range of the analytes. In spiked hair samples for most of the analytes the limit of detection and the accuracy using isotope dilution were 2-5 ng/g and 97-105%, respectively. The applicability was demonstrated using hair samples from a controlled experiment in which six bovines were injected intramuscularly with two different doses of two commercial mixtures of testosterone esters, and with two different doses of boldenone undecylenate. Depending on the dose all administered testosterone- and boldenone esters were found to be incorporated in bovine hair following a single intramuscular injection, except testosterone propionate which dose might have been too low.

Detection of testosterone propionate administration in horse hair samples

14 Mar 2017

Detection of testosterone propionate administration in horse hair samples / S. Boyer, P. Garcia, M.A. Popot, V. Steiner, M. Lesieur

  • Journal of Chromatography B 852 (2007) 1-2 (June), p. 684-688)
  • PMID: 17383946
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2007.02.046


Abstract

A sensitive and specific method has been developed to detect semi-quantitatively testosterone in horse hair samples. The method involved a washing step with sodium dodecylsulfate aqueous solution. The mane and tail hair samples (100mg) were dissolved in 1 mL of sodium hydroxide for 15 min at 95 degrees C in the presence of d3-boldenone used as internal standard. The next three steps involved diethyl ether extraction and a solid phase extraction on Isolute C18 (EC) cartridges eluted with methanol. The residue was derivatized by adding 100 microL of acetonitrile and 30 microL of PFPA then incubating for 15 min at 60 degrees C. After evaporation, 30 microL of hexane was added and 2.5 microL was injected into the column (a bonded phase fused silica capillary column DB5MS, 30 m x 0.25 mm i.d. x 0.25 microm film thickness) of a Trace GC chromatograph. In order to improve the sensitivity of the method, damping gas flow has been optimized. Testosterone was identified in MS(2) full scan mode on the Polaris Q instrument. The assay was capable of detecting less than 1 pg mg(-1). The recovery was close to 90%. The analysis of tail and mane samples collected from a gelding horse having received a single dose of testosterone propionate (1 mg kg(-1)) showed the presence of testosterone in the range of 1-6 pg mg(-1) in hair collected during 5 months after administration.

Doping control for nandrolone using hair analysis

7 Mar 2001

Doping control for nandrolone using hair analysis / P. Kintz, V. Cirimele, V. Dumestre-Toulet, B. Ludes

  • Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 24 (2001) 5-6 (March), p. 1125-1130
  • PMID: 11248508
  • DOI: 10.1016/s0731-7085(00)00570-7


Abstract

A sensitive, specific and reproducible method for the quantitative determination of nandrolone in human hair has been developed. The sample preparation involved a decontamination step of the hair with methylene chloride. The hair sample (about 100 mg) was solubilized in 1 ml NaOH IN, 15 min at 95 degrees C, in presence of 10 ng nandrolone-d(3) used as an internal standard. The homogenate was neutralized and extracted using consecutively a solid phase (Isolute C18) and a liquid--liquid (pentane) extraction. The residue was derivatized by adding 50 microl MSTFA/NH4I/2-mercaptoethanol (1000:2:5; v/v/v), then incubated for 20 min at 60 degrees C. A 4-microl aliquot of the derivatized extract was injected into the column (HP5-MS capillary column, 5% phenyl--95% methylsiloxane, 30 m x 0.25 mm i.d. x 0.25 mm film thickness) of a Hewlett Packard (Palo Alto, CA) gas chromatograph (6890 Series) via a Hewlett Packard (7673) autosampler. The assay was capable of detecting 0.5 pg of nandrolone per mg of hair when approximately 100 mg of hair were processed. Linearity was observed for nandrolone concentrations ranging from 1 to 50 pg/mg with a correlation coefficient of 0.997. Intra-day and between-day precisions at 10 pg/mg were 11.2 and 15.1%, respectively, with an extraction recovery of 81.7%. The analysis of three strands of hair, obtained from three bodybuilders, revealed the presence of nandrolone at the concentration of 1, 3.5 and 7.5 pg/mg.

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