Mr Jevgenij Shuklin is a Lithuanian Athlete competing in the Men’s Canoe event at the London 2012 Olympic Games. In 2018, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) decided to perform further analyses on certain samples collected during the 2012 Olympic Games. These additional analyses were performed with analytical methods which were not available in 2012. In December 2018 the International Testing Agency (ITA), on behalf of the IOC, reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete after his 2012 A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substance Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (Turinabol). After notification the Athlete was heard for the IOC Disciplinary Commission. The Athlete denied the intentional use of the substance and could not explain how the substance entered his system. Further he questioned the circumstances his sample was held and stored since the 2012 Olympic Games. The Disciplinary Commission holds that the test results establish the presence of Turinabol in the Athlete’s samples and accordingly that he committed an anti-doping rule violation. In the matter of the issues raised by the Athlete regarding the analytical process, the Commission finds that they do not put the validity of the test results in question. The Commission deems that the Turinabol has been very commonly used as doping substance and found in many positive cases in the reanalysis of samples collected on the occasion of the 2012 and 2008 Olympic Games. The Commission finds that the use of this substance is therefore consistent with the intentional use of Prohibited Substances specifically ingested to deliberately improve performance. Therefore the IOC Disciplinary Commission decides on 7 June 2019 that the Athlete, Jevgenij Shuklin: 1.) is found to have committed an anti-doping rule violation pursuant to the IOC Anti-Doping Rules applicable to the Games of the XXX Olympiad in London in 2012 (presence and/or use, of Prohibited Substances or their Metabolites or Markers in the Athlete’s bodily specimen), and 2.) is disqualified from the events in which he participated upon the occasion of the 2012 Olympic Games, namely, the Men’s Canoe Sprint C-1 200m event. 3.) has the medal, diploma, and pin obtained in the Men’s Canoe Sprint C-1 200m event withdrawn and is ordered to return them. 4.) The ICF is requested to modify the results of the above-mentioned event accordingly and to consider any further action within its own competence. 5.) The National Olympic Committee of Lithuania shall ensure full implementation of this decision. 6.) The decision enters into force immediately.
In December 2018 the International Bobsleigh & Skeleton Federation (IBSF) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Canadian Athlete Aaron Victorian III after his A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substance Cocaine. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete filed a statement in his defence. In his submission the Athlete denied the intentional use of the substance and explained with evidence that he had used Bolivian tea for years that contained coca leaves for his high altitude sickness. Further the Athlete requested to lift the provisional suspension which was rejected by the Anti-Doping Hearing Panel on 31 December 2018. Hereafter the Athlete failed to respond to the IBSF communications. The Panel deems that the Athlete has been given sufficient time to provide any further statement or explanation regarding the positive test and has waived his right to ask for a hearing. Considering the evidence provided by the Athlete the Panel accepts the Athlete’s explanation that the coca tea was the source of the positive test. The Panel finds that the violation was not intentional but he failed to provide any evidence about his altitude sickness nor why he never seeked medical help or tried other medical remedies to cure him. The Panel concludes that drinking coca tea without further inquiries or research cannot be considered as fulfilling a "duty of care". The Athlete did not establish in his submission that he could not, even with the exercise of the utmost caution, reasonably have suspected that he had been administered a Prohibited Substance. Therefore the IBSF Anti-Doping Hearing Panel decides on 23 May 2019 to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 29 December 2018.
In March 2018 the International Bobsleigh & Skeleton Federation (IBSF) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete Jazmine Fenlator-Victorian after her sample tested positive for the prohibited substance clenbuterol. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. Here the Athlete asserted that contaminated supplements she used were the source of the positive test. In support analysis of this supplement in a laboratory confirmed the presence of Clenbuterol in the analyzed capsules from two separate packages. Based on the evidence the IBSF accepts that the source of clenbuterol was a contaminated nutritional supplement taken by the Athlete prior to the competition of 13 January 2018. The IBSF considers that a very small concentration of the substance was found in the Athlete’s sample and that the Athlete’s next sample provided on 25 January 2018 did not result in a positive test. Further the IBSF holds that the Athlete checked the ingredients of the supplement before using and mentioned this supplement on the Doping Control Form. Accordingly the IBSF concludes that the Athlete committed an anti-doping rule violation but established No Significant Fault or Negligence as ground for a reduced sanction. The IBSF reached an agreement with the Athlete regarding the consequences of the anti-doping rule violation into a decision under IBSF Anti-Doping Rules. Threrefore the IBSF decides on 25 April 2019 to impose a 1 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. 8 March 2019.
Related cases: IOC 2017 IOC vs Alexey Voevoda - Operative Part December 18, 2017 CAS 2017/A/5468 Alexey Voevoda vs IOC July 11, 2018 Two reports commissioned by WADA, published by Prof Richard McLaren on 18.07.2016 and 09.12.2016, showed detailed evidences of organised manipulation of some Russian samples collected during the Olympic Winter Games Sochi 2014. The reports describe how urine bottles were opened and urine was switched with clean modified urine coming from a “biobank”, and how urine density had to be adjusted to match that recorded on the doping control form (if different at the time of collection) by adding salt to the sample. As a result of the McLaren Reports the IOC Oswald Commission started investigations in order to establish the possible liability of individual athletes and to issue any sanctions so that decisions could be taken as far in advance of the 2018 Winter Games as possible. In the context of this Commission the IOC decided that all the samples of all Russian athletes who participated in Sochi were re-analysed. The re-analysis established whether there was doping or whether the samples themselves were manipulated. _________________________________________________ Alexey Voevoda is a Russian Athlete competing in the Men's Bobsleigh Event at the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games. In December 2016 the IOC Disciplinary Commission has reported multiple anti-doping rule violations against the Athlete for tampering, conspiracy and use of prohibited substances. Consequently the IOC Disciplinary Commission decided on 18 December 2017 to declare Alexey Voevoda ineligible to be accredited in any capacity for all editions of the Games of the Olympiad and the Olympic Winter Games subsequent to the Sochi Olympic Winter Games. Further the Commission disqualified the Athlete and his Team from the events at the 2014 Sochi Olympic Winter Games including forfeiture of any medal, diploma, medallist pin, points and prizes. ________________________________________________ In December 2017 the Athlete Alexey Voevoda appealed the IOC decision with the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS). A total of 42 cases were filed with CAS by Russian athletes (the Sochi Appellants) against the decisions taken by the IOC Disciplinary Commission in relation to the 2014 Sochi Olympic Winter Games. Having thoroughly considered the submissions of the Parties, the written evidence as well as the oral evidence and testimonies provided at the six-day hearing, the Panel finds that the Athlete committed ADRVs in the form of the use of a prohibited method, i.e. urine substitution, pursuant to Article 2.2 of the WADC in connection with M2.1 of the 2014 WADA Prohibited List, and in the form of use of a prohibited substance under Article 2.2 of the WADC. The Panel was unable to find the commission of either an ADRV in the form of tampering with doping control in accordance with Article 2.5 of the WADC or an ADRV in the form of cover-up of or complicity in an ADRV under Article 2.8 of the WADC. Based on the finding of two individual ADRVs committed by the Athlete, the Panel concludes that the imposition of a lifetime ineligibility to participate in whatever capacity in Olympic Winter Games as well as in Games of the Olympiad is not appropriate in relation to the seriousness of the individual ADRVs and, therefore, declares the Athlete ineligible to participate in any capacity for the next edition of the Olympic Winter Games, i.e. the Winter Games in PyeongChang 2018. Therefore the Court of Arbitration for Sport decides on 11 July 2018 that: 1.) The Appeal filed by Alexey Voevoda on 19 December 2017 against the Decision of the International Olympic Committee Disciplinary Commission dated 18 December 2017 is partially upheld. 2.) Paragraph I(a) of the Decision rendered by the International Olympic Committee Disciplinary Commission dated 18 December 2017 is modified as follows: I. The Athlete, Alexey VOEVODA: a) is found to have committed an anti-doping rule violation pursuant to the International Olympic Committee Anti-Doping Rules applicable to the XXII Olympic Winter Games in Sochi, Russia, in connection with the World Anti-Doping Code. 3.) Paragraph V of the Decision rendered by the International Olympic Committee Disciplinary Commission dated 18 December 2017 is annulled and replaced as follows: V. Alexey VOEVODA is declared ineligible to be accredited in any capacity for the next edition of the Olympic Winter Games subsequent to the Sochi Olympic Winter Games (i.e. PyeongChang 2018). 4.) The Russian Team which ranked 1st in the 4-Man Bobsleigh event is disqualified. The corresponding diplomas are withdrawn and shall be returned to the International Olympic Committee. 5.) All other rulings contained in the Decision rendered by the International Olympic Committee Disciplinary Commission dated 18 December 2017 are maintained. 6.) The award is pronounced without costs, except for the Court Office fee of CHF 1,000 (one thousand Swiss Francs) paid by Alexey Voevoda, which is retained by the CAS. 7.) Each party shall bear their own costs and other expenses incurred in connection with this arbitration. 8.) All other motions or prayers for relief are dismissed. ________________________________________________ Hereafter following the findings of CAS Award 2017/A/5468 the International Bobsleigh & Skeleton Federation (IBSF) reported two anti-doping rule violations against the Athlete Alexey Voevoda: Use of a Prohibited Substance and Use of a Prohibited Method. After the notification the Athlete failed to respond to the IBSF communications. Therefore the IBSF decides on 8 February 2019 in absence of the Athlete that: 1.) Mr Alexey VOEVODA is found to have committed an anti-doping rule violation pursuant to Art. 2.2 ADR. 2.) Mr Alexey VOEVODA is declared ineligible for a period of two (2) years starting from the date of his Provisional Suspension, December 21, 2018 and therefore ending December 20, 2020; during which period he is not entitled to participate in any competition or activity. The term “activity” also includes, for example, administrative activities, such as serving as an official, director, officer, employee, or volunteer of the organization. 3.) Mr Alexey VOEVODA shall be disqualified of all competitive results since 17 February 2014. 4.) This Decision may be submitted exclusively by way of appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport in Lausanne, Switzerland, which will render a final decision in accordance with the Code of sports-related arbitration.
Related cases: IOC 2017 IOC vs Maxim Belugin - Decision March 21, 2018 IOC 2017 IOC vs Maxim Belugin - Operative Part December 22, 2017 Two reports commissioned by WADA, published by Prof Richard McLaren on 18.07.2016 and 09.12.2016, showed detailed evidences of organised manipulation of some Russian samples collected during the Olympic Winter Games Sochi 2014. The reports describe how urine bottles were opened and urine was switched with clean modified urine coming from a “biobank”, and how urine density had to be adjusted to match that recorded on the doping control form (if different at the time of collection) by adding salt to the sample. As a result of the McLaren Reports the IOC Oswald Commission started investigations in order to establish the possible liability of individual athletes and to issue any sanctions so that decisions could be taken as far in advance of the 2018 Winter Games as possible. In the context of this Commission the IOC decided that all the samples of all Russian athletes who participated in Sochi were re-analysed. The re-analysis established whether there was doping or whether the samples themselves were manipulated. ________________________________________________ Maxim Belugin is a Russian Athlete competing in the Men's Bobsleigh Events at the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games. In April 2017 the IOC Disciplinary Commission reported multiple anti-doping rule violations against the Athlete for tampering, conspiracy and for testing positive for the prohibited substances Metenolone and Trenbolone. Here the Disciplinary Commission deemed - based on the investigations, the evidence and findings - that the participation of the Athlete in the doping scheme is established to its comfortable satisfaction. The Disciplinary Commission concluded that it is more than comfortably satisfied that the Athlete committed the anti-doping rule violations and he was a participant in, and a beneficiary of, the cover up scheme implemented on the occasion of the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games. Therefore the IOC Disciplinary Commission decided on 21 March 2018 that the Athlete Maxim Belugin is found to have committed anti-doping rule violations upon the occasion of the XXII Olympic Winter Games in Sochi. The athlete and his team were disqualified from the events in which he participated at the Games and all medals won by him and his team were forfeited. The athlete was also declared ineligible to participate in any capacity in all subsequent editions of the Olympic Games. Hereafter on 15 March 2019 the Athlete and the International Bobsleigh & Skeleton Federation (IBSF) reached an agreement regarding the consequences of the anti-doping rule violatons established by the IOC. The agreement included, that: 1.) Mr. Belugin accepts the charge of a commission of an ADRV for the Presence of Metenolone and/or Trenbolone in his A and B Samples no 2891900 in violation of Article 2.1 IBSF ADR. 2.) Mr. Belugin accepts as a sanction a period of ineligibility of two (2) years starting from February 23rd 2019, from which the period of Provisional Suspension, which was imposed on 8 June 2017, shall be deducted. 3.) Mr. Belugin shall be disqualified of all competitive results since 15 February 2014. 4.) The IBSF will no longer pursue the allegation of Tampering and/ or Cover up/Complicity. 5.) The Agreement may be submitted exclusively by way of appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport in Lausanne, Switzerland, which will render a final decision in accordance with the Code of sports-related arbitration.
IAAF Taskforce Report to the IAAF Council about the Russian Athletics Federation (RusAF) - 8 June 2019
IAAF Taskforce report to Council, 8 June 2019 / Rune Andersen. - International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). - Monaco : IAAF, 2019 _________________________________________________ The IAAF Council announced that there had been no change in status of the Russian Athletics Federation (RusAF). Reporting to the IAAF Council at its meeting in Monaco, Rune Andersen, the independent chairman of the IAAF Taskforce, said that while some progress has been made, key issues remain outstanding that prevent reinstatement of RusAF. One criteria has been met, Andersen reported: payment by (RusAF) of all expenses incurred during the Russian crisis, which has totaled US$3.2 million to date. A second criteria, he added, is close to being met: receipt of the analytical data and any samples that the AIU needs from the Moscow lab in order to determine which athletes have a case to answer under the IAAF anti-doping rules. "As soon as the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) receives the data from WADA it will review to confirm it has everything it needs," Andersen said. But Andersen said the task force noted recent allegations that RUSAF officials were involved in an attempt to cover up a doping offence by one of their athletes and that banned coaches and a banned doctor continue to work with athletes. "That calls into question whether RUSAF is able to enforce doping bans, and whether all RUSAF athletes have embraced the change to a new anti-doping culture proclaimed by RUSAF, both of which are conditions for reinstatement. The AIU will be looking into this. “The Task Force shares Council's frustration that progress in two areas is being undermined in apparent back-sliding in two other areas. [The Task Force] hopes the outstanding issues can be resolved soon. If and when they are, it will report that back at its Council meeting in Doha in September, if not before.”
Adverse analytical findings with clenbuterol among U‐17 soccer players attributed to food contamination issues
Adverse analytical findings with clenbuterol among U‐17 soccer players attributed to food contamination issues / Mario Thevis, Lina Geyer, Hans Geyer, Sven Guddat, Jiri Dvorak, Anthony Butch, Saskia S. Sterk, Wilhelm Schänzer. - (Drug testing and analysis 5 (2013) 5 (May); p. 372-376). - PMID: 23559541. - DOI: 10.1002/dta.1471 ___________________________________________________ Abstract The illicit use of growth promoters in animal husbandry has frequently been reported in the past. Among the drugs misused to illegally increase the benefit of stock farming, clenbuterol has held a unique position due to the substance's composition, mechanism of action, metabolism, and disposition. Particularly clenbuterol's disposition in animals' edible tissues destined for food production can cause considerable issues on consumption by elite athletes registered in national and international doping control systems as demonstrated in this case-related study. Triggered by five adverse analytical findings with clenbuterol among the Mexican national soccer team in out-of-competition controls in May 2011, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) initiated an inquest into a potential food contamination (and thus sports drug testing) problem in Mexico, the host country of the FIFA U-17 World Cup 2011. Besides 208 regular doping control samples, which were subjected to highly sensitive mass spectrometric test methods for anabolic agents, 47 meat samples were collected in team hotels during the period of the tournament and forwarded to Institute of Food Safety, RIKILT. In 14 out of 47 meat samples (30%), clenbuterol was detected at concentrations between 0.06 and 11 µg/kg. A total of 109 urine samples out of 208 doping control specimens (52%) yielded clenbuterol findings at concentrations ranging from 1-1556 pg/ml, and only 5 out of 24 teams provided urine samples that did not contain clenbuterol. At least one of these teams was on a strict 'no-meat' diet reportedly due to the known issue of clenbuterol contamination in Mexico. Eventually, owing to the extensive evidence indicating meat contamination as the most plausible reason for the extraordinary high prevalence of clenbuterol findings, none of the soccer players were sanctioned. However, elite athletes have to face severe consequences when testing positive for a prohibited anabolic agent and sufficient supporting information corroborating the scenario of inadvertent ingestion are required to be acquitted from anti-doping rule violations. Hence, governmental contribution is urgently needed to combat the illegal use of clenbuterol in stock breading.
Statistical significance of hair analysis of clenbuterol to discriminate therapeutic use from contamination
Statistical significance of hair analysis of clenbuterol to discriminate therapeutic use from contamination / Aniko Krumbholz, Patricia Anielski, Lena Gfrerer, Matthias Graw, Hans Geyer, Wilhelm Schänzer, Jiri Dvorak, Detlef Thieme. (Drug testing and analysis 6 (2014) 11-12 (November-December); p. 1108-1116). - PMID: 25388545. - DOI: 10.1002/dta.1746 _________________________________________________ Abstract Clenbuterol is a well-established β2-agonist, which is prohibited in sports and strictly regulated for use in the livestock industry. During the last few years clenbuterol-positive results in doping controls and in samples from residents or travellers from a high-risk country were suspected to be related the illegal use of clenbuterol for fattening. A sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to detect low clenbuterol residues in hair with a detection limit of 0.02 pg/mg. A sub-therapeutic application study and a field study with volunteers, who have a high risk of contamination, were performed. For the application study, a total dosage of 30 µg clenbuterol was applied to 20 healthy volunteers on 5 subsequent days. One month after the beginning of the application, clenbuterol was detected in the proximal hair segment (0-1 cm) in concentrations between 0.43 and 4.76 pg/mg. For the second part, samples of 66 Mexican soccer players were analyzed. In 89% of these volunteers, clenbuterol was detectable in their hair at concentrations between 0.02 and 1.90 pg/mg. A comparison of both parts showed no statistical difference between sub-therapeutic application and contamination. In contrast, discrimination to a typical abuse of clenbuterol is apparently possible. Due to these findings results of real doping control samples can be evaluated.
Development of two complementary LC-HRMS methods for analyzing sotatercept in dried blood spots for doping controls
Development of two complementary LC-HRMS methods for analyzing sotatercept in dried blood spots for doping controls / Tobias Lange, Katja Walpurgis, Andreas Thomas, Hans Geyer, Mario Thevis (Bioanalysis 11 (2019) 10). - PMID: 31218901. - DOI: 10.4155/bio-2018-0313 _________________________________________________ Abstract Aim: sotatercept is a therapeutic Fc-fusion protein with erythropoiesis-stimulating activity. Due to a potential abuse of the drug by athletes in professional sports, a sensitive detection method is required. In sports drug testing, alternative matrices such as dried blood spots (DBS) are gaining increasing attention as they can provide several advantages over conventional matrices. Materials & methods: Herein, two complementary LC-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) detection methods for sotatercept from DBS, an initial testing procedure (ITP) and a confirmation procedure (CP) were developed and validated for the first time. Both methods comprise an ultrasonication-assisted extraction, affinity enrichment, proteolytic digestion and HRMS detection. Results & conclusion: For the multianalyte ITP, artificial samples fortified with sotatercept, luspatercept and bimagrumab, and authentic specimens containing bimagrumab were successfully analyzed as proof-of-concept. The validated detection methods for sotatercept are fit for purpose and the ITP was shown to be suitable for the detection of novel IgG-based pharmaceuticals in doping control DBS samples.
Effect of hyperhydration on the pharmacokinetics and detection of orally administered budesonide in doping control analysis
Effect of hyperhydration on the pharmacokinetics and detection of orally administered budesonide in doping control analysis / I. Athanasiadou, A. Vonaparti, A. Dokoumetzidis, A. Saleh, M. Mbeloug, M. Al‐Maadheed, G. Valsami, C. Georgakopoulos. - (Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports (2019) 17 June). - PMID: 31206799. - DOI: 10.1111/sms.13499 _________________________________________________ Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate if hyperhydration could influence the excretion and subsequent detection of budesonide (BDS) and its main metabolites (6β-hydroxy-budesonide and 16α-hydroxy-prednisolone) during doping control analysis by leading to concentrations below the WADA reporting level (30 ng/mL). The influence of hyperhydration on the plasma and urinary pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of BDS and metabolites was also examined. Seven healthy physically active non-smoking Caucasian males participated in a 15-day clinical study. BDS was administered orally at a single dose of 9 mg on Days 1, 7 and 13. Hyperhydration was applied in the morning on two consecutive days, i.e., 0 and 24 hours after first fluid ingestion. Water and a commercial sports drink were used as hyperhydration agents (20 mL/kg body weight). Results showed no significant difference (P > 0.05, 95% CI) on plasma or urinary PK parameters under hyperhydration conditions for all the analytes. However, significant differences (P < 0.05, 95% CI) due to hyperhydration were observed on the urinary concentrations of BDS and metabolites. To compensate the dilution effect due to hyperhydration, different adjustment methods were applied based on specific gravity, urinary flow rate and creatinine. All the applied methods were able to adjust the concentration values close to the baseline ones for each analyte, however, specific gravity was the optimum method in terms of effectiveness and practicability. Furthermore, no masking of the detection sensitivity of BDS or its metabolites was observed due to hyperhydration either in plasma or urine samples.