How does exposure to thinspiration and fitspiration relate to symptom severity among individuals with eating disorders? Evaluation of a proposed model

22 Oct 2018

How does exposure to thinspiration and fitspiration relate to symptom severity among individuals with eating disorders? Evaluation of a proposed model / Scott Griffiths, David Castle, Mitchell Cunningham, Stuart B. Murray, Brock Bastian, Fiona Kate Barlow. - (Body Image 27 (2018) December; p. 187-195)

  • PMID: 30359868
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2018.10.002


Thinspiration and fitspiration are classes of social media content characterised by idealised depictions of excessively thin and overtly fit/lean bodies, respectively. It is currently unknown whether and how exposure to thinspiration and fitspiration relates to symptom severity within high-risk clinical populations. Thus, in a clinical sample of individuals with eating disorders, we evaluated a model explaining how exposure to thinspiration and fitspiration relates to eating disorder symptoms. Individuals with self-reported eating disorders (N = 228, 47% with anorexia, 93% female) completed measures of image-centric social media use, thinspiration and fitspiration exposure, physical appearance comparisons, and symptom severity. Results showed that more frequent use of image-centric social media was associated with more frequent exposures to both thinspiration and fitspiration. In turn, these exposures were associated with more frequent physical appearance comparisons, and through these, greater symptom severity. Physical appearance comparisons mediated the relationships of both thinspiration and fitspiration exposure with symptom severity. Exposure to fitspiration was more common than exposure to thinspiration. However, thinspiration exposure evidenced stronger associations with symptom severity than fitspiration exposure. In conclusion, our model provides a useful account of how eating disorder symptoms relate to thinspiration and fitspiration exposure, and to image-centric social media more generally.

Anabolic Steroid and Human Growth Hormone Abuse: Creating an Effective and Equitable Ergogenic Drug Policy

1 Jan 1994

Anabolic Steriod and Human Growth Hormone Abuse : Creating an Effective and Equitable Ergogenic Drug Policy / George Fan. - University of Chicago Legal Forum (1994) 1, article 19; p. 439-470)

The goal of this Comment is threefold. First, it shows that
HGH and steroids are so similar in terms of their limited clinical uses, the number and demographics of abusers, and the side
effects associated with abuse that any difference in penalties is
unjustified. Second, the Comment compares the side effects and
medical uses of HGH with other drugs in Schedule III of the CSA
and concludes that HGH should be classified as a Schedule III
drug. Finally, this Comment explores alternative avenues of
deterrence, including education and social sanctions.

The detection of doping agents in blood

1 Oct 1976

The detection of doping agents in blood / Manfred Donike. - (British Journal of Sports Medicine 10 (1976) 3 (1 October); p. 147-154)

  • PMID: 11865
  • PMCID: PMC1859725
  • DOI: 10.1136/bjsm.10.3.147-a


Gas chromatographic screening procedures have been evaluated which permit the detection of stimulants and sedatives in blood after administration of pharmacological doses. The techniques actually used in sample preparations and gas chromatographic work are presented as well as examples of pharmacokinetic studies and postive dope cases. The use of sensitive and selective detectors like the nigrogen-specific detector or a mass spectrometer is absolutely essential for routine work, as for non-specific detectors the number of "false positives" leads to an intolerable work load for the laboratory.

Doping of athletes

29 Aug 1964

Doping of athletes / O.D. Ratnoff, A.A. Miles. - (British Medical Journal (1964) 2 (29 August); p. 525)

  • PMID: 14173180
  • PMCID: PMC1816178
  • DOI: 10.1136/bmj.2.5408.525

With the Tokyo Olympics in mind, the British Association of Sport and Medicine has issued a policy statement on the doping of athletes and sportsmen, which, it states, is being sent to " all the governing bodies of sport." A major difficulty in drafting such a statement is the definition of what, in this context, constitutes "doping."

Validation of a Psychosocial Intervention on Body Image in Older People: An Experimental Design

31 May 2021

Validation of a Psychosocial Intervention on Body Image in Older People : An Experimental Design / Roberto Sánchez-Cabrero, Ana C. León-Mejía, Amaya Arigita-García. - (Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE (2021) 171 (31 May); e62506)

  • PMID: 34125089
  • DOI: 10.3791/62506


For most people, body satisfaction is crucial to develop both a positive self-concept and self-esteem, and therefore, it can influence mental health and well-being. This idea has been tested with younger people, but no studies explore whether body image interventions are useful when people age. This research validates a specific program designed for older people (IMAGINA Specific Body Image Program). This is done by employing a mixed experimental design, with between-subject and within-subject comparisons that focus on body satisfaction before and after experimental treatment, comparing two groups. Using this experimental methodology makes it possible to identify the effect of the intervention in a group of 176 people. The score obtained with the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was the dependent variable, and the IMAGINA program was the independent one. As for age, gender, relationship status, season, and residence environment, these were controlled variables. There were significant differences in body satisfaction between the two programs, obtaining better results with IMAGINA. The controlled variables had a much less significant effect than the treatment. Therefore, it is possible to improve body satisfaction in older adults through interventions similar to the one presented here.

Declining track and field performance trends in recent years in the Austrian best results 1897-2019

1 Jun 2021

Declining track and field performance trends in recent years in the Austrian best results 1897-2019 / Bergita Ganse, Hans Degens. - (Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions 21 (2021) 2 (1 June); p. 196-205)

  • PMID: 34059565
  • PMCID: PMC8185268


Objectives: Plateauing of world records in sports has been suggested to reflect the limits of human physiology. Possible explanations include reduced doping or declining popularity that may even lead to a decrease in human performance. Such a decrease, however, has not yet been observed. We hypothesized that rather than a performance plateau, performance has recently declined.

Methods: Fifteen athletic disciplines of the Austrian annual rankings were analyzed by regression statistics and the average best performance of the last 20 years compared to earlier periods.

Results: The best performances occurred between 1980-1999 and were on average 2.56% (men) and 1.67% (women) better than between 2000-2019. This attenuation was significant in men in 200 m, 800 m, 1500 m, 10 km, long jump, javelin throw (p<0.05), high jump, pole vault, discus throw, shot put and hammer throw (p<0.001); and in women in 400 m, long jump, discus throw (p<0.05) and high jump (p<0.001). The greatest performance declines were observed in the men's shot put (9.11%) and hammer throw (11.44%).

Conclusions: The Austrian track and field annual best results show a performance decline following a peak, instead of a plateau. Future studies should address the causes and whether this also applies to other sports and countries.

Investigation of the urinary excretion of prednisolone and metabolites after nasal administration: relevance to doping control /

3 Jun 2021

Investigation of the urinary excretion of prednisolone and metabolites after nasal administration : relevance to doping control / Koen Deventer, Michael Polet, Wim Van Gansbeke, F. Hooghe, H. Van Hoecke, P. Van Eenoo. - (Drug Testing and Analysis (2021) 3 June)

  • PMID: 34081842
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.3105


Glucocorticosteroid (GC) use in sport is restricted to non-systemic (nasal/ophtamological/dermatological/intra-articular) use. Systemic use is prohibited because of strong inflammatory suppressing effects. Prednisolone is a GC proven to be very effective in the treatment of nasal congestions and allergic rhinitis and its therapeutic use is allowed. To establish normal urinary concentration ranges for nasally administered prednisolone, an excretion study was performed with Sofrasolone® (nasal-inhaler). 6 volunteers were administered a high dose (4.5 mg prednisolone in 4 gifts over a 9 hour period). Samples were analysed using a validated LC-MS/MS method monitoring prednisolone (PRED) and the metabolites prednisone (PREDON), 20β-dihydroprednisolone (20βPRED) and 20β-dihydroprednisolone (20βPRED) in the total fraction (glucuroconjugated and free). Maximum concentrations were 266, 500, 350 and 140 ng/ml for PRED, PREDON, 20βPRED and 20βPRED, respectively. These results show that the current reporting limit of 30 ng/ml in urine can be easily exceeded after therapeutic use. Hence, to avoid false-positive findings related to nasal application, this limit should be increased. To investigate the degree of glucuronidation of PRED and its metabolites also the free fraction was investigated. This shows that PREDON has the highest glucuroconjugation (50%). PRED, 20βPRED and 20βPRED only show less than 20% conjugation.

Stanozolol-N-glucuronide metabolites in human urine samples as suitable targets in terms of routine anti-doping analysis

5 Jun 2021

Stanozolol-N-glucuronide metabolites in human urine samples as suitable targets in terms of routine anti-doping analysis / Lorenz Göschl, Günter Gmeiner, Peter Gärtner, Georg Stadler, Valentin Enev, Mario Thevis, Wilhelm Schänzer, Sven Guddat, Guro Forsdahl. - (Drug Testing and Analysis (2021) 5 June)

  • PMID: 34089570
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.3109


The exogenous anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) stanozolol stays one of the most detected substances in professional sports. Its detection is a fundamental part of doping analysis, and the analysis of this steroid has been intensively investigated for a long time. This contribution to the detection of stanozolol doping describes for the first time the unambiguous proof for the existence of 17-epistanozolol-1'N-glucuronide and 17-epistanozolol-2'N-glucuronide in stanozolol-positive human urine samples due to the access to high-quality reference standards. Examination of excretion study samples shows large detection windows for the phase-II metabolites stanozolol-1'N-glucuronide and 17-epistanozolol-1'N-glucuronide up to 12 days and respectively up to almost 28 days. In addition, we present appropriate validation parameters for the analysis of these metabolites using a fully automatic method online solid-phase extraction (SPE) method already published before. Limits of identification (LOIs) as low as 100 pg/ml and other validation parameters like accuracy, precision, sensitivity, robustness, and linearity are given.

Feasibility and preliminary effect of anabolic steroids in addition to strength training and nutritional supplement in rehabilitation of patients with hip fracture: a randomized controlled pilot trial (HIP-SAP1 trial)

20 May 2021

Feasibility and preliminary effect of anabolic steroids in addition to strength training and nutritional supplement in rehabilitation of patients with hip fracture : a randomized controlled pilot trial (HIP-SAP1 trial) / Signe Hulsbæk, Thomas Bandholm, Ilija Ban, Nicolai Bang Foss, Jens-Erik Beck Jensen, Henrik Kehlet, Morten Tange Kristensen. - (BMC Geriatrics 21 (2021) 1 (20 May); 323)

  • PMID: 34016037
  • PMCID: PMC8136760
  • DOI: 10.1186/s12877-021-02273-z


Background: Anabolic steroid has been suggested as a supplement during hip fracture rehabilitation and a Cochrane Review recommended further trials. The aim was to determine feasibility and preliminary effect of a 12-week intervention consisting of anabolic steroid in addition to physiotherapy and nutritional supplement on knee-extension strength and function after hip fracture surgery.

Methods: Patients were randomized (1:1) during acute care to: 1. Anabolic steroid (Nandrolone Decanoate) or 2. Placebo (Saline). Both groups received identical physiotherapy (with strength training) and a nutritional supplement. Primary outcome was change in maximal isometric knee-extension strength from the week after surgery to 14 weeks. Secondary outcomes were physical performance, patient reported outcomes and body composition.

Results: Seven hundred seventeen patients were screened, and 23 randomised (mean age 73.4 years, 78% women). Target sample size was 48. Main limitations for inclusion were "not home-dwelling" (18%) and "cognitive dysfunction" (16%). Among eligible patients, the main reason for declining participation was "Overwhelmed and stressed by situation" (37%). Adherence to interventions was: Anabolic steroid 87%, exercise 91% and nutrition 61%. Addition of anabolic steroid showed a non-significant between-group difference in knee-extension strength in the fractured leg of 0.11 (95%CI -0.25;0.48) Nm/kg in favor of the anabolic group. Correspondingly, a non-significant between-group difference of 0.16 (95%CI -0.05;0.36) Nm/Kg was seen for the non-fractured leg. No significant between-group differences were identified for the secondary outcomes. Eighteen adverse reactions were identified (anabolic = 10, control = 8).

Conclusions: Early inclusion after hip fracture surgery to this trial seemed non-feasible, primarily due to slow recruitment. Although inconclusive, positive tendencies were seen for the addition of anabolic steroid.

Trial registration: NCT03545347 .

Keywords: Anabolic steroid; Body composition; Hip fracture; Nutritional supplement; Physical function; Physical therapy; Rehabilitation; Strength training.

Current Insights into the Steroidal Module of the Athlete Biological Passport

28 May 2021

Current Insights into the Steroidal Module of the Athlete Biological Passport / Thomas Piper, Hans Geyer, Nadine Haenelt, Frank Huelsemann, Wilhelm Schaenzer, Mario Thevis. - (International Journal of Sports Medicine (2021) 28 May)

  • PMID: 34049412
  • DOI: 10.1055/a-1481-8683


For decades, the class of anabolic androgenic steroids has represented the most frequently detected doping agents in athletes' urine samples. Roughly 50% of all adverse analytical findings per year can be attributed to anabolic androgenic steroids, of which about 2/3 are synthetic exogenous steroids, where a qualitative analytical approach is sufficient for routine doping controls. For the remaining 1/3 of findings, caused by endogenous steroid-derived analytical test results, a more sophisticated quantitative approach is required, as their sheer presence in urine cannot be directly linked to an illicit administration. Here, the determination of urinary concentrations and concentration ratios proved to be a suitable tool to identify abnormal steroid profiles. Due to the large inter-individual variability of both concentrations and ratios, population-based thresholds demonstrated to be of limited practicability, leading to the introduction of the steroidal module of the Athlete Biological Passport. The passport enabled the generation of athlete-specific individual reference ranges for steroid profile parameters. Besides an increase in sensitivity, several other aspects like sample substitution or numerous confounding factors affecting the steroid profile are addressed by the Athlete Biological Passport-based approach. This narrative review provides a comprehensive overview on current prospects, supporting professionals in sports drug testing and steroid physiology.

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