WADA - Strategic Plan 2020-2024

2 Jul 2020

Strategic Plan 2020-2024 / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2020

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has published its Five-Year Strategic Plan, which lays the foundation for WADA’s strategic activity for 2020-2024 as the Agency is ‘Leading Anti-Doping in a New Era’.

The Strategic Plan was agreed by WADA’s Executive Committee (ExCo) when they met virtually on 15 May 2020; and, was subsequently approved unanimously by the Agency’s Foundation Board by circulatory vote.

Our journey of reflection and discovery

In May 2019, WADA initiated development of the Strategic Plan with a commitment to soliciting feedback from key stakeholders within the anti-doping ecosystem; such as: athletes; representatives of the Sports Movement and Governments of the world; industry influencers; as well as, National Anti-Doping Organizations and WADA-accredited laboratories. The feedback acknowledged how much WADA had achieved over its 20-year history; how the Agency’s growth had helped spur on the global movement for doping-free sport; and, it also identified a number of areas where WADA could improve or focus more.

The Strategic Priorities

WADA defined the following Strategic Priorities, which address the key issues and challenges identified via our internal and external consultation:

- Lead: Lead by example by taking bold steps to proactively tackle emerging issues with agility and innovative solutions across all facets of anti-doping.
- Grow Impact: Expand the reach and impact of anti-doping programs by enhancing capacity building and knowledge sharing between Anti-Doping Organizations and empowering local program delivery.
- Be Athlete-Centered: Engage and empower athletes to contribute to the development of anti-doping policies, build an easier anti-doping journey for athletes, and increase the contribution that our programs deliver for athletes and their entourage so that they can build healthy and sustainable careers in sport.
- Collaborate and Unite: Engage and collaborate with everyone involved in anti-doping, in particular with the sports movement and public authorities, to increase support, unity and coherence in everyone’s efforts.
- Be Visible: Raise awareness and shape a proactive narrative that will demonstrate the positive impact of doping-free sport and WADA’s role.
- Perform: Provide greater value to our stakeholders by reducing operational complexities and maximizing impact and cost-effectiveness.

WADA - Strategic Plan 2015-2019

16 Nov 2014

Strategic Plan 2015-2019 / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2014


  1. Foreword
  2. Vision, Mission and Values
  3. Summary of Strategic Objectives
  4. Summary of Strategic Objectives


WADA - Strategic Plan 2011-2016

26 Nov 2011

Strategic Plan 2011-2016 / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2011


I. Foreword
II. Vision, Mission and Values
III. Summary of Strategic Objectives
IV. Strategic Objectives

WADA has published the fourth revision of its Strategic Plan, which covers the period 2011 to 2016.

The plan, which was created in 2001 and revised in 2004 and 2007, has been developed to align WADA’s activities and resources over the next five years.

It has eight objectives based on the World Anti-Doping Code, the current environment and trends in anti-doping, and WADA’s governance and operational activities.

WADA’s strategic objectives serve to promote the integrity and value of sport and youth, promote the ‘level playing field’ philosophy, and act independently, professionally and without bias or influence.

The eight objectives of WADA’s Strategic Plan are:

- Provide comprehensive leadership on current and emerging issues and in the communication of effective strategies and programs in the campaign for doping-free sport.

- Achieve compliance by all anti-doping and international sport organizations with the Code to honor the rights of clean athletes and maintain the integrity of sport.

- Generate universal involvement of public authorities and public leaders in the campaign against doping in sport, and in particular encourage national laws to allow the sharing of evidence gathered or collected through investigations and inquiries by appropriate bodies.

- Promote an international framework for education programs that instill the values of doping-free sport.

- Promote universal awareness of the ethical aspects and health, legal and social consequences of doping so that stakeholders use that knowledge in their interaction with and education of athletes to prevent doping, protect health and the integrity of sport.

- Implement an international scientific research program and foster an international scientific research environment and expert network that monitors and predicts trends in doping science and actively promotes reliable research outcomes in the effective development, improvement and implementation of detection methods.

- Lead, assist and perform oversight so that every accredited anti-doping laboratory performs at a level consistent with international standards.

- Be a respected organization whose corporate governance and operating standards reflect international best practice.

Evidence for a decrease in cardiovascular risk factors following recombinant growth hormone administration in abstinent anabolic-androgenic steroid users

26 Feb 2007

Evidence for a decrease in cardiovascular risk factors following recombinant growth hormone administration in abstinent anabolic-androgenic steroid users / Michael R. Graham, Julien S. Baker, Peter Evans, Andrew Kicman, David Cowan, David Hullin, Bruce Davies. - (Growth Hormone & IGF Research 17 (2007) 3 (June); p. 201-209)

  • PMID: 17324600
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ghir.2007.01.010


Objectives: To determine whether six days recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in an abstinent anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) group had any cardiovascular and biochemical effects compared with a control group.

Methods: Male subjects (n=48) were randomly divided, using a single blind procedure into two groups: (1) control group (C) n=24, mean+/-SD, age 32+/-11 years; height 1.8+/-0.06m; (2) rhGH using group (0.058IUkg(-1)day(-1)) (GH) n=24, mean+/-SD, age 32+/-9 years; height 1.8+/-0.07m. Physiological responses, anthropometry, arterial pulse wave velocity (APWV), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), peak oxygen uptake (VO(2) peak) and biochemical indices were investigated.

Results: Body mass index, fat-free mass index and VO(2) peak significantly increased while body fat significantly decreased within GH (all P<0.017). Insulin like growth factor-I significantly increased within GH (P<0.017) and compared with C (P<0.05). Serum sodium significantly increased (P<0.017) and serum homocysteine, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, thyroid stimulating hormone and tetra-iodothyronine (T(4)), significantly decreased within GH (all P<0.017). T(4) significantly decreased compared with C (P<0.05). Arterial pulse wave velocity, peak and recovery systolic and diastolic BP, significantly decreased compared with C (P<0.05). Resting HR and rate pressure product (RPP) significantly increased compared with C (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that short term use of rhGH may have beneficial effects on endothelial function and specific inflammatory markers of cardiovascular disease in abstinent AAS users, but may have an adverse effect on the cardiovascular system, as evidenced by the increase in resting RPP.

Examining the Profile and Perspectives of Individuals Attending Harm Reduction Services who are Users of Performance and Image enhancing Drugs

1 Nov 2014

Examining the Profile and Perspectives of Individuals Attending Harm Reduction Services who are Users of Performance and Image enhancing Drugs / Ciarán J. Jennings, Emer Patten, Mark Kennedy, Chris Kelly. - Dublin : Merchants Quay Ireland (MQI), 2014


The present report presents findings from a research project undertaken by Merchants Quay Ireland (MQI). The evidence emerging from international studies points to a significant increase in the prevalence of individuals attending harm reduction services who are users of performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs). Given the indicators of a similar trend emerging in an Irish context, the rationale underlying the study was based on the recognition of the growing need to examine the profile and perspectives of such individuals attending services in Ireland. The study employed a mixed method research design, with 89 clients of harm reduction services, who were users of PIEDs, completing a comprehensive survey. An overview of the nine primary questions, which the research aimed to address, is provided below, with a description of the main findings relevant to each question also presented.


Chapter 1: Review of Literature
1.1. Overview of the Research Problem
1.2. Defining Key Concepts
1.2.1. Performance and image enhancing drugs
1.2.2. Harm reduction
1.3. Literature Review
1.3.1. Socio-demographic characteristics
1.3.2. Use of PIEDs
1.3.3 Use of other substances.
1.3.4. Injecting practices and blood-borne viruses
1.3.5. The interaction of harm reduction and users of PIEDs
1.4. The Present Study
1.4.1. Research context
1.4.2. Research questions
Chapter 2: Methodology
2.1. Research Design
2.2. Participants and Sampling
2.3. Materials
2.4. Procedure
2.5. Data Analysis
2.6. Ethical Considerations
Chapter 3: Findings
3.1. Descriptive Statistics
3.2. Socio-Demographic Characteristics
3.3. Use of PIEDs
3.4. Side-Effects Experienced in Association with use of PIEDs
3.5. Training and Exercise
3.6. Use of Other Substances
3.7. Injecting Practices
3.8. Blood-borne Viruses
3.9. Harm Reduction Service Utilisation
3.10. Perspectives on Harm Reduction Services
Chapter 4. Discussion
4.1. Restatement of Aims and Research Questions
4.2. Overview of Key Findings
4.3. Interpretation of Findings
4.4. Appraisal of Methodology
4.5. Recommendations
4.5.1. Recommendations for practice
4.5.2. Recommendations for research
4.6. Conclusion

Clean Olympians? Doping and anti-doping: The views of talented young British athletes

30 Nov 2009

Clean Olympians? Doping and anti-doping : The views of talented young British athletes / Andrew Bloodworth, Michael McNamee. - (International Journal of Drug Policy 21 (2010) 4 (July); p. 276-282)

  • PMID: 20056401
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2009.11.009


Background: Review articles suggest a small but significant proportion (between 3 and 12%) of male adolescents have used anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) at some point (Yesalis and Bahrke, 2000; Calfee and Fadale, 2006). In sport, the use of prohibited substances or processes to enhance performance, collectively referred to as 'doping', is banned by both sports' National and International Governing Bodies, and by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) who run an extensive testing programme and educational initiatives designed to foster anti-doping attitudes.

Method: A total of 40 talented male and female athletes (mean average age 19.6 years) from 13 different sports attended 12 focus groups held over the UK intended to investigate athletes' attitudes toward doping. Focus group transcriptions were analysed and coded with the use of QSR NVivo 8.

Results: Athletes in general did not report a significant national doping problem in their sport, but exhibited sporting xenophobia with regard to both doping practices and the stringency of testing procedures outside of the UK. Athletes often viewed doping as 'unnatural' and considered the shame associated with doping to be a significant deterrent. Athletes perceived no external pressure to use performance enhancing drugs. In response to hypothetical questions, however, various factors were acknowledged as potential 'pressure' points: most notably injury recovery and the economic pressures of elite sport. Finally, a significant minority of athletes entertained the possibility of taking a banned hypothetical performance enhancing drug under conditions of guaranteed success and undetectability.

Conclusions: The athletes in this study generally embraced those values promoted in anti-doping educational programmes, although there were some notable exceptions. That the social emotion of shame was considered a significant deterrent suggests anti-doping efforts that cultivate a shared sense of responsibility to remain 'clean' and emphasise the social sanctions associated with being deemed a 'drugs cheat', resonate with this atypical social group.

Detection of Growth Hormone Doping by Gene Expression Profiling of Peripheral Blood

1 Dec 2009

Detection of Growth Hormone Doping by Gene Expression Profiling of Peripheral Blood / Christopher J. Mitchell, Anne E. Nelson, Mark J. Cowley, Warren Kaplan, Glenn Stone, Selina K. Sutton, Amie Lau, Carol M.Y. Lee, Ken K.Y. Ho. - (The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 94 (2009) 12 (1 December); p. 4703-4709)

  • PMID: 19875482
  • DOI: 10.1210/jc.2009-1038


Context: GH abuse is a significant problem in many sports, and there is currently no robust test that allows detection of doping beyond a short window after administration.

Objective: Our objective was to evaluate gene expression profiling in peripheral blood leukocytes in-vivo as a test for GH doping in humans.

Design: Seven men and thirteen women were administered GH, 2 mg/d sc for 8 wk. Blood was collected at baseline and at 8 wk. RNA was extracted from the white cell fraction. Microarray analysis was undertaken using Agilent 44K G4112F arrays using a two-color design. Quantitative RT-PCR using TaqMan gene expression assays was performed for validation of selected differentially expressed genes.

Results: GH induced an approximately 2-fold increase in circulating IGF-I that was maintained throughout the 8 wk of the study. GH induced significant changes in gene expression with 353 in women and 41 in men detected with a false discovery rate of less than 5%. None of the differentially expressed genes were common between men and women. The maximal changes were a doubling for up-regulated or halving for down-regulated genes, similar in magnitude to the variation between individuals. Quantitative RT-PCR for seven target genes showed good concordance between microarray and quantitative PCR data in women but not in men.

Conclusion: Gene expression analysis of peripheral blood leukocytes is unlikely to be a viable approach for the detection of GH doping.

Growth hormone induces anabolism in malnourished maintenance haemodialysis patients

8 Mar 2005

Growth hormone induces anabolism in malnourished maintenance haemodialysis patients / Joel D. Kopple, Giuliano Brunori, Marc Leiserowitz, Denis Fouque. - (Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 20 (2005) 5 (May); p. 952-958)

  • PMID: 15755757
  • DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gfh731


Background: Growth hormone (GH) promotes anabolism in patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis (MHD). However, no studies have examined the effects of GH on protein anabolism in MHD patients using full nitrogen-balance techniques. This study tested the hypothesis that recombinant human GH (rhGH) will induce an anabolic response, as assessed by long-term classic nitrogen-balance techniques, in malnourished MHD patients.

Methods: Six adult MHD patients with protein-energy malnutrition underwent nitrogen-balance studies in a general clinical research centre for 28-35 days each. Patients were maintained on a constant dialysis regimen and protein and energy intakes that were similar to their dialysis regimen and diet prior to hospitalization. The first 14-21 hospital days constituted a baseline phase; during the subsequent 8-21 days, patients were given daily subcutaneous injections of rhGH (0.05 mg/kg body weight/day).

Results: During treatment with rhGH, serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) increased by approximately 225% (P = 0.002), nitrogen balance became strongly positive (+2.35 g/day; P = 0.034 vs baseline) and there was a reduction in serum urea nitrogen (-32%; P = 0.001). Two patients who became acutely ill and had the lowest dietary protein intakes developed a much smaller rise in serum IGF-I levels and increase in nitrogen balance when they received the rhGH treatment. In the remaining four responders, the decrease in nitrogen output was sustained throughout the entire period of treatment with rhGH. There was no change in body weight during the baseline or treatment phases of the study.

Conclusions: Injections of rhGH induce a strong and sustained anabolic effect, as indicated by positive nitrogen balance, in MHD patients with protein-energy malnutrition. This response was attenuated in two patients who were acutely ill with low protein intakes, suggesting that they may have developed partial resistance to GH.

Responses of markers of bone and collagen turnover to exercise, growth hormone (GH) administration, and GH withdrawal in trained adult males

1 Jan 2000

Responses of Markers of Bone and Collagen Turnover to
Exercise, Growth Hormone (GH) Administration, and GH
Withdrawal in Trained Adult Males / Jennifer D. Wallace, Ross C. Cuneo, Per Arne Lundberg, Thord Rosén, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen, Salvatore Longobardi, Nicola Keay, Luigi Sacca, Jens Sandahl Christiansen, Bengt-Åke Bengtsson, Peter H. Sönksen. - (The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 85 (2000) 1 (1 January); p. 124-133)

  • PMID: 10634375
  • DOI: 10.1210/jcem.85.1.6262


To examine the interactions between acute exercise and GH on markers of bone and collagen turnover and to assess the potential for detecting GH abuse in athletes using these markers, we studied 17 aerobically trained males (age, 26.9+/-1.5 yr). Sequential studies of exercise, GH administration, and GH withdrawal were undertaken. A randomized, controlled study of rest vs. exercise showed that exercise did not change serum osteocalcin; other markers of formation increased transiently (each P<0.001): bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (+16.1%), carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (+14.1%), and procollagen III N-terminal extension peptide (+5.0%). The carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen, a bone resorption marker, increased 9.7% (P = 0.018) in response to exercise. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study of recombinant human GH treatment (0.15 IU/kg x day) for 1 week increased serum osteocalcin (net increase preexercise, +/-10.0%; P = 0.017), carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (+17.6%; P = 0.002), procollagen III N-terminal extension peptide (+48.4%; P = 0.001), and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (53.3%; P = 0.009). Disappearance half-times after cessation of recombinant human GH for pre- and postexercise markers ranged from 248-770 h. We conclude 1) endurance exercise transiently activates bone and collagen turnover; 2) brief GH administration results in similar but quantitatively greater augmentation; and 3) these data will assist in designing a GH detection strategy.

Beyond elite sports: Analysis of the coverage of anabolic steroids in the Spanish press (2007–2011)

1 Oct 2014

Beyond elite sports : Analysis of the coverage of anabolic steroids in the Spanish press (2007–2011) / Víctor Agulló Calatayud, Rafael Castelló i Cogollos, Juan Carlos Valderrama
Zurián. - (Catalan Journal of Communication & Cultural Studies 6 (2014) 2 (1 October); p. 197-220)


This article explores how the issue of anabolic steroids has been covered by the Spanish press in a period when doping/drug abuse in sport has attracted considerable attention in the media. We analysed news and opinion pieces about this topic in the Spanish written press over a period of five years (2007–2011) on the basis of the agendasetting theory. A total of 581 items linked to the consumption of steroids were identified, mainly in the sports sections of a statewide newspaper and in the society and crime sections of Valencian and Catalan regional newspapers. In the vast majority of cases, the source and producer of the news is the police or the judicial system and the primary focus is on penal aspects, while a health and social integration perspective is neglected. Press releases from the police reveal the spread of the doping phenomenon, among both professional and amateur athletes, and also among security and emergency bodies.

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