Perceptions Of Benefits and Losses Associated With The Use and Discontinuance Of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids Among Male Bodybuilders

11 Nov 1998

Perceptions Of Benefits and Losses Associated With The Use and Discontinuance Of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids Among Male Bodybuilders / Olrich, Tracy W. - (Journal of Personal and Interpersonal 4 (1999) 3; p. 231-242)

  • DOI: 10.1080/10811449908409732


Abstract

Research has shown the mesomorphic physique to be the most preferred body type among males. Specifically, the hypermesomorphic physique, which displays extreme muscularity and definition, is the most desired (Tucker, 1983). Mishkind, Rodin, Silberstein, and Streigel-Moore (1987) concluded that multiple reasons exist for this preference, most notably the intimate ties that exist among societal conceptions of masculinity, the male sex role, and the mesomorphic physique. Bodybuilding has been perceived as an avenue by which males attempt to develop the preferred mesomorphic physique, and, at times, anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) have been ingested as a means for further development. This study entailed in-depth interviews with 10 male bodybuilders, all of whom had taken, or were currently taking, AAS. This article presents the findings of the interviews concerning the perceived benefits of and psychological dependency on AAS. The data, particularly responses concerning psychological dependency, are noted within Mishkind et al.'s framework as a mechanism to avoid loss of muscle strength, muscle mass, and masculinity.

The Value of the Dark Side: An Insight into the Risks and Benefits of Engaging in Health-compromising Practices from the Perspective of Competitive Bodybuilders

20 Nov 2009

The Value of the Dark Side : An Insight into the Risks and Benefits of Engaging in Health-compromising Practices from the Perspective of Competitive Bodybuilders / Anne Probert, Sarah Leberman. - (European Sport Management Quarterly 9 (2009) 4 (20 November); p. 353-373)

  • Issue: The Dark Side of Sport 
  • DOI: 10.1080/16184740903331838


Abstract

Phenomenological accounts of competitive bodybuilders have emphasized positive experiences, whilst critical and clinical perspectives have predominantly portrayed the sport as unhealthy and detrimental to participants. This article provides insights from competitive bodybuilders in New Zealand relating to their health-compromising and risky experiences within the sport. Interviews with thirty-two competitive bodybuilders were undertaken, highlighting their conscious decisions to engage in health-compromising practices and also their vulnerabilities. Stories of steroid use, the extremes of dieting, eating disorders and obsessive behaviour are provided. The research confirms that there is a dark side to competitive bodybuilding, but there are also pleasures and value associated with these encounters. These can prove meaningful to personal and athletic identity and enable participants to test their boundaries and internal strengths—experiences that may contribute to personal growth, therapy and a sense of “self-affirmation”.

Strengthening Athlete Power in Sport: A multidisciplinary review and framework

1 Sep 2021

Strengthening Athlete Power in Sport : A multidisciplinary review and framework / Alberto Carrio, Arnout Geeraert, Evie Ham, Andy Harvey, Alban Zohn, Mike McNamee (Ed.). - Aarhus : Play the Game; Danish Institute for Sports Studies, 2021

  • ISBN978-87-93784-57-4

The project Strengthening Athlete Power in Sport (SAPIS) aimed at strengthening the influence and representation of athletes in the way that their sports organizations are governed and managed has released their first output.

The output, a literature review produced by the project’s academic partners, demonstrates that academic research on questions of athlete representation is limited. Therefore, to effectively capture what happens on the ground in terms of political structures and groups that promote athlete’s interests, in addition to scientific academic literature other documents have been included.  

The review is organized under the following headings

  • Democracy and sports governance 
  • Legitimacy of sports governance 
  • Athletes and industrial relations 
  • The special features of the sports sector 
  • Athlete activism 
  • The grey literature on athletes’ rights 

    Cholestasis produced by the administration of norethandrolone

    1 Feb 1959

    Cholestasis produced by the administration of norethandrolone / Fenton Schaffner, Hans Popper, Eugene Chesrow. - (American Journal of Medicine 26 (1959) 2 (1 February); p. 249-254)

    • PMID: 13617282
    • DOI: 10.1016/0002-9343(59)90314-6


    Norethandrolone was administered to 27 patients for three to five weeks. Liver biopsies were performed before and after administration of the drug. Histologic evidence of cholestasis was found in four patients. In each of these instances the serum glutamic oxalacetic-transaminase activity increased above 150 units from normal levels. In one patient severe jaundice developed which lasted ten weeks. The remaining patients tolerated the drug well and gained weight. In a control group of 28 patients receiving a tranquilizing drug and similarly studied no instances of cholestasis were found.
    Inflammatory reaction in the portal tracts and around proliferated ductules (cholangiolitis) was not associated with the cholestasis although it was present in some patients before and after administration of norethandrolone.

    Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta Agonist (PPAR- δ) and Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) Abuse

    7 Oct 2021

    Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta Agonist (PPAR- δ) and Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) Abuse: Clinical, Analytical and Biological Data in a Case Involving a Poisonous Combination of GW1516 (Cardarine) and MK2866 (Ostarine) / Pascal Kintz, Laurie Gheddar, Camille Paradis, Mickael Chinellato, Alice Ameline, Jean-Sébastien Raul, Magali Oliva-Labadie. - (Toxics 9 (2021) 10 (7 October) 251)

    • PMID: 34678947
    • PMCID: PMC8538264
    • DOI: 10.3390/toxics9100251


    Abstract

    A 43-year-old male, sport coach, presented him-self at the Emergency unit of a local hospital for epigastric pain, myalgia pain and severe headache. He claimed having used for some days a combination of GW1516 (cardarine), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta agonist (PPAR- δ) and MK2866 (ostarine), a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) to gain skeletal muscles. Cytolysis with marked increase of alanine aminotransferase or ALT (up to 922 UI/L) and aspartate aminotransferase or AST (up to 2558 UI/L) and massive rhabdomyolysis with elevated creatine phosphokinase or CPK (up to 86435 UI/L) were the main unusual biochemistry parameters. Using a specific liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry method, cardarine and ostarine tested positive in blood at 403 and 1 ng/mL, respectively. In urine, due to extensive metabolism, the parent GW1516 was not identified, while ostarine was at 88 ng/mL. Finally, both drugs were identified in hair (2 cm in length, brown in colour), at 146 and 1105 pg/mg for cardarine and ostarine, respectively. This clearly demonstrates repetitive abuse over the last 2 months. Asthenia was persistent for 2 weeks and 6 weeks after the admission, the subject fully recovered.

    Anamorelin (ONO-7643) for the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and cachexia: Results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study of Japanese patients (ONO-7643-04)

    4 Dec 2017

    Anamorelin (ONO-7643) for the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and cachexia : Results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study of Japanese patients (ONO-7643-04) / Nobuyuki Katakami, Junji Uchino, Takuma Yokoyama, Tateaki Naito, Masashi Kondo, Kouzo Yamada, Hiromoto Kitajima, Kozo Yoshimori, Kazuhiro Sato, Hiroshi Saito, Keisuke Aoe, Tetsuya Tsuji, Yuichi Takiguchi, Koichi Takayama, Naoyuki Komura, Toru Takiguchi , Kenji Eguchi. - (Cancer 124 (2018) 3 (1 Feb); 606-616)

    • PMID: 29205286
    • PMCID: PMC5814824
    • DOI: 10.1002/cncr.31128


    Abstract

    Background: Cachexia, described as weight loss (mainly in lean body mass [LBM]) and anorexia, is common in patients with advanced cancer. This study examined the efficacy and safety of anamorelin (ONO-7643), a novel selective ghrelin receptor agonist, in Japanese cancer patients with cachexia.

    Methods: This double-blind clinical trial (ONO-7643-04) enrolled 174 patients with unresectable stage III/IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and cachexia in Japan. Patients were randomized to daily oral anamorelin (100 mg) or a placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change from the baseline LBM (measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) over 12 weeks. The secondary endpoints were changes in appetite, body weight, quality of life, handgrip strength (HGS), and 6-minute walk test (6MWT) results.

    Results: The least squares mean change (plus or minus the standard error) in LBM from the baseline over 12 weeks was 1.38 ± 0.18 and -0.17 ± 0.17 kg in the anamorelin and placebo groups, respectively (P < .0001). Changes from the baseline in LBM, body weight, and anorexia symptoms showed significant differences between the 2 treatment groups at all time points. Anamorelin increased prealbumin at weeks 3 and 9. No changes in HGS or 6MWT were detected between the groups. Twelve weeks' treatment with anamorelin was safe and well tolerated in NSCLC patients.

    Conclusions: Anamorelin significantly increased LBM and improved anorexia symptoms and the nutritional state, but not motor function, in Japanese patients with advanced NSCLC. Because no effective treatment for cancer cachexia is currently available, anamorelin can be a beneficial treatment option.

    Androstenedione (a Natural Steroid and a Drug Supplement): A Comprehensive Review of Its Consumption, Metabolism, Health Effects, and Toxicity with Sex Differences

    14 Oct 2021

    Androstenedione (a Natural Steroid and a Drug Supplement) : A Comprehensive Review of Its Consumption, Metabolism, Health Effects, and Toxicity with Sex Differences / Marwa T. Badawy, Mansour Sobeh, Jianbo Xiao, Mohamed A. Farag. - (Molecules 26 (2021) 20 (14 October) 6210; p. 1-16)

    • PMID: 34684800
    • PMCID: PMC8539210
    • DOI: 10.3390/molecules26206210


    Abstract

    Androstenedione is a steroidal hormone produced in male and female gonads, as well as in the adrenal glands, and it is known for its key role in the production of estrogen and testosterone. Androstenedione is also sold as an oral supplement, that is being utilized to increase testosterone levels. Simply known as "andro" by athletes, it is commonly touted as a natural alternative to anabolic steroids. By boosting testosterone levels, it is thought to be an enhancer for athletic performance, build body muscles, reduce fats, increase energy, maintain healthy RBCs, and increase sexual performance. Nevertheless, several of these effects are not yet scientifically proven. Though commonly used as a supplement for body building, it is listed among performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) which is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency, as well as the International Olympic Committee. This review focuses on the action mechanism behind androstenedione's health effects, and further side effects including clinical features, populations at risk, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and toxicokinetics. A review of androstenedione regulation in drug doping is also presented.

    Testosterone, identity and the body: Exploring cultural definitions of disorder

    17 Aug 2021

    Testosterone, identity and the body : Exploring cultural definitions of disorder / Kyle J.D. Mulrooney, Rick Collins, Jack Darkes. - (International Journal of Drug Policy 95 (2021) September; 103366)

    • PMID: 34412937
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103366


    Abstract

    Medically-sanctioned testosterone administration has seen increasingly widespread application in the treatment of gender dysphoria (GD). Yet, by comparison, this approach is not medically accepted for those who are experiencing muscle dysmorphia (MD), a specifier of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), despite both conditions reflecting incongruences between self-perception, identity and phenotype, and both currently being classified as mental health disorders. Rather, by stark contrast, those with MD are largely treated with psychological intervention to accept themselves as they physically are and the illicit use of testosterone for muscle-related body perception purposes is generally subject to criminal justice enforcement actions. In this commentary, we examine attempts to distinguish between the use of testosterone for gender-affirming hormone therapy in the case of GD and for aesthetic (muscle enhancement) use in the case of MD, as well as explore the implications of this disparity. Moreover, we consider how such disparity in policy and practice may be understood, in part, as an example of a bias reflecting the selective pathologizing of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use, socio-cultural evolutions in gender identity and expression and, more broadly, the manner in which culture defines disorder and its appropriate response.

    Education Interventions to Improve Knowledge, Beliefs, Intentions and Practices with Respect to Dietary Supplements and Doping Substances: A Narrative Review

    3 Nov 2021

    Education Interventions to Improve Knowledge, Beliefs, Intentions and Practices with Respect to Dietary Supplements and Doping Substances : A Narrative Review / Jana Daher, Dalia El Khoury, John J.M. Dwyer. - (Nutrients 13 (2021) 11 (3 November); 3935)

    • DOI: 10.3390/nu13113935


    Abstract

    The misuse of dietary supplements and doping substances is commonly associated with toxicity, nutritional imbalances, and health and psychological consequences. This is alarming especially in light of the increasing prevalence of the use of dietary supplements and doping, particularly among young adults including athletes. There is evidence that education interventions can lead to improved knowledge, intentions, and practices. However, no review has summarized and evaluated the effectiveness of such interventions. The aim of this article is to review the characteristics, contents and effects of education interventions that were designed and implemented to improve knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and intentions with respect to the use of dietary supplements and doping agents in different populations. PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycInfo and Google Scholar were searched for English-language education interventions targeting dietary supplements and doping substances. A total of 20 articles were identified and have generally provided consistent findings. Most interventions reported a significant improvement in knowledge on dietary supplements and doping agents. Unfortunately, the heavy reliance on self-reported assessment tools limits the validity of these interventions, with almost all articles targeting athletes and adolescents. 

    An examination of anti-doping education initiatives from an educational perspective: Insights and recommendations for improved educational design

    15 Sep 2020

    An examination of anti-doping education initiatives from an educational perspective : Insights and recommendations for improved educational design / Julian R. Woolf. - (Performance Enhancement & Health 8 (2020) 2-3 (August) 100178)

    • DOI: 10.1016/j.peh.2020.100178


    Abstract

    The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has declared that education is a central focus of their anti-doping strategy. This is evident in the expansion of Article 18 of the 2021 World Anti-Doping Code that focuses on education. Furthermore, at the 2019 World Conference on Doping in Sport, they launched the International Standard for Education. International standards are technical documents that further harmonize anti-doping efforts, to which Code signatories are required to follow for Code compliance. Before this, WADA developed an online platform, ADeL, to consolidates all of its e-learning resources and in August 2019, they hired a Director of Education to lead their education strategy. While these developments are likely applauded by anti-doping advocates, historically the efficacy of anti-doping educational programs to increase athletes’ knowledge of doping has been very poor. The design of education programs has been criticized and even when they meet many of the current recommendations for program design, the results are not favorable. A partial explanation for this is that the design of past education programs has not been informed by principles from education and other related disciplines. This includes a lack of alignment between learning outcomes desired, the education activities performed, and the assessment of learning outcomes. In this monograph, previous educational initiatives are reviewed, and program design critiqued. WADA’s education strategy is examined before recommendations for improved education design are made. This includes greater reliance on education programs that are constructively aligned and provide opportunities for athletes to develop knowledge via retrieval tasks.

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