UFC 2016 Francisco Rivera vs USADA

19 Jan 2018

In August 2016 the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the American MMA Athlete Francisco Rivera after his A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substance Clenbuterol. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete filed a statement in his defence and he was heard for the UFC Arbitration Panel. 

The Athlete did not challenge the test results and believed that one of the supplements he had used was contaminated with Clenbuterol. He also assumed that he consumption of contaminated meat in Mexico could have caused the positive test in July 2016. In support he filed evidence that showed that he was in Mexico in July 2016 where he had purchased and consumed meat.

USADA contended that the Athlete had used the prohibited substance Clenbuterol intentionally since the concentration of this substance found in his samples was too high to be caused by meat contamination. In fact at the relevant time USADA concluded that the Clenbuterol was used intentionally to help prepare the Athlete for his important bout.

Futhermore USADA deemed that aggravating circumstances are justified since it established that the Athlete had manufactured evidence and falsified documents to prove his presence in Mexico regarding the meat contamination. Here the Athlete later admitted that he had produced fraudulent evidence. 

The Arbitration finds that the Athlete failed to establish that the positive test could have been caused by contaminated supplements or eating contaminated meat in Mexico.

Based on the Aggravating Circumstances in this case because of the submission of fraudulent evidence the Arbitrator decides on 19 January 2018 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 17 August 2016.

UFC 2016 Felipe Olivieri vs USADA

21 Jan 2017

In March 2016 the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Brazilian MMA Athlete Felipe Olivieri after his A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substance Methyltestosterone. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete filed a statement in his defence and he was heard for the UFC Arbitration Panel. 

Due to a false positive WADA had suspended the accreditation of the Rio Lab in June 2016 and the Athlete’s A and B bottles were transferred to the Salt Lake City Lab where the B sample was analysed in September 2016 confirming the positive test result of the A sample in the Rio Lab. 

The Athlete requested the Panel to set aside the test results claiming that the Athlete’s Sample had been mishandled by the Rio Laboratory staff and that the Sample’s chain of custody had been compromised as departures of the ISTI and the ISL. 

USADA contended that the Rio Lab had conducted a valid analysis of the Athlete’s Sample between January and March 2016 in accordance with the ISL. At that time the Lab was a WADA accredited Laboratory and the matter of the false positive in the Rio Lab was unrelated to the Athlete’s positive test result.

Further USADA asserted that the Athlete failed to demonstrate that any of the alleged departures reasonably could have caused this positive test result. The lack of a seal on the container transport package does not mean that the Samples were not secured. There is no requirement that the container must have been sealed nor did it effected the integrity of the Sample bottles within. 

The Arbitrator finds that the presence of a prohibited substance has been established in the Athlete’s A and B sample and accordingly that he committed an anti-doping rule violation. Any inconsistencies found on various forms have no consequences to the analytical findings based on the evidence in this case. Neither is the absence of a secure seal on the external transport container a departure of the ISTI because the Sample bottles themselves were properly sealed. 

The suspension of the accreditation of the Rio Lab by WADA in June 2016 does not mean that the previous analysis of the Athlete’s Sample in March 2016 was incorrect or flawed. The Arbitrator deems that the analysis of the Athlete’s sample in the Rio Lab was in accordance with the ISTI and the ISL while the Athlete failed to produce no evidence showing a departure from the ISL. 

Therefore the UFC Arbitration Panel decides on 21 January 2017 to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 10 March 2016.

World Athletics 2020 WA vs Dzmitry Nabokau

1 Sep 2020

In October 2019 the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) of World Athletics has reported an an anti-doping rule violation against the Belarussian Athlete Dzmitry Nabokau after his A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substance Furosemide. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete filed a statement in his defence and he was heard for the World Athletics Disciplinary Tribunal. 

The Athlete denied the intentional use of the substance and accepted the test result. He believed that the food parcel he had received from his grandmother might have been the source of the positive test. He explained with evidence that his grandmother used prescribed Furosemide as treatment for her condition and that she inadvertently had contaminated the food parcel she had provided. 

Further he asserted that analysis of his supplements and medication he had used tested negative and a sample of a hairtest showed no presence of Furosemide. Also he referred to an experiment in the Belarus Anti-Doping Lab that demonstrates that Furosemide could be transmitted on surfaces and in foods. However the Athlete could only provide his grandmother’s recent prescription for Furosemide but not the previous prescriptions at the relevant time nor any other medical document. 

The AIU contended that there were flaws and inconsistencies in the Athlete’s explanation due to he failed to establish with evidence that his grandmother was using Furosemid at the relevant time. Also he failed to establish that the the scenario he described in his explanation would have led to the level of concentration found in his sample. 

The Panel concludes that the Athlete’s explantion was speculative, that he failed to establish that his explantion was more likely than not and that he is unable to rely on any reduction or elimination of the period of ineligibility.

The Panel finds that in order to establish how the prohibited substance entered his body it is not enough to posit one possible explanation; it is necessary to demonstrate that the explanation is probable and that it is more likely than not. 

Therefore the Disciplinary Tribunal decides on 1 September 2020 to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 28 October 2019.

World Athletics 2019 WA vs Cheruiyot Kangogo

28 Aug 2020

In June 2019 the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) of World Athletics has reported an an anti-doping rule violation against the Kenyan Athlete Philip Cheruiyot Kangogo after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Higenamine. 

After notification the Athlete failed to respond substantively to the charge against him but finally on 31 July 2020 he gave a prompt admission, waived his right for a hearing, accepted a provisional suspension, the test result and the sanction proposed by the AIU. 

The Athlete denied the intentional use of the substance and assumed that a contaminated supplement or local herbs had caused the positive test result. However the Athlete nor Athletics Kenya were able to identify these herbs.

Therefore the AIU decides on 28 August 2020 to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on 31 July 2020.

World Athletics 2020 WA vs Nataliia Krol

3 Aug 2020

In March 2020 the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) of World Athletics has reported an an anti-doping rule violation against the Ukrainian Athlete Nataliia Krol after her sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Hydrochlorothiazide.

After notification the Athlete gave a prompt admission, waived her right for a hearing, accepted a provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by AIU. 

The Athlete denied the intentional use of the substance and explained that in a city, 4 days before the Doping Control, she was afflicted by headache, blurred vision, heaviness in the back of the head and tinnitus related to hypertension. In the nearest pharmacy she used as treatment the suggested Captopres-Darnitsa medication. She acknowledged that she didn’t check this medication with a doctor nor checked the label before using it. 

The AIU accepts that the violation was not intentional and that she established how the substance entered her system. Considering the circumstances in this case the AIU holds that there are grounds for No Significant Fault or Negligence.

Therefore the AIU decides on 3 August 202) to impose a 20 month period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the sample collection, i.e. on 16 january 2020.

Theory of mind in users of anabolic androgenic steroids

5 Jul 2020

Theory of mind in users of anabolic androgenic steroids / Anja Vaskinn, Lisa E. Hauger, Astrid Bjørnebekk. - (Psychopharmacology (2020) 5 July; p. 1-9)

  • PMID: 32623552
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00213-020-05603-y

Abstract

Rationale: Anabolic androgenic steroids are used to improve physical performance or increase lean muscle mass. About one-third of users develop a dependency syndrome, which is characterized by elevated rates of psychopathology, cognitive impairments, and aggressive and antisocial behaviors. The mechanisms behind these intra- and interpersonal problems are not known.

Objective: To examine theory of mind (ToM), i.e., the ability to infer the mental state of others, in users of anabolic androgenic steroids. Reduced ToM may be one factor underlying the interpersonal problems that have been reported with prolonged use of anabolic androgenic steroids.

Methods: The Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) was used to assess ToM. Study participants were male/female weightlifters who used anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS, n = 34/9), who were dependent on anabolic androgenic steroids (AASdep, n = 44/7), and a non-using weightlifting comparison group (WLC, n = 69/16).

Results: Analyses of variance showed that the AASdep group performed significantly worse than the WLC group, for all MASC measures (total ToM, cognitive ToM, affective ToM, overmentalizing/undermentalizing errors). Sex and sex x group interaction effects were non-significant.

Conclusions: Male and female weightlifters who were dependent on anabolic androgenic steroids had impaired ToM. Their reduced social cognition may be one contributing factor to the elevated rates of antisocial behavior reported in this population.

Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among women - A qualitative study on experiences of masculinizing, gonadal and sexual effects

28 Jul 2020

Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among women - A qualitative study on experiences of masculinizing, gonadal and sexual effects /  Ingrid Amalia Havnes, Marie Lindvik Jørstad, Ingveig Innerdal, Astrid Bjørnebekk. - (International Journal of Drug Policy (2020) 102876 (28 July); p. 1-9)

  • PMID: 32736958
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102876

Abstract

Background: Female users of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are at risk of developing masculinizing side effects. This study explores how the development of masculinizing effects has been experienced and processed by women with current or previous AAS use.

Methods: Individual, semi-structured interviews were undertaken among 16 current or previous AAS-using women. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed.

Results: Almost all of the women were introduced to AAS and advised about what substance(s) to use, how much to use and how to use it by a trusted male partner, friend or coach. For some, AAS initiation was an impulsive choice, while others wanted to overcome stagnation and/or prepare for fitness competitions. Many were unprepared for the unwanted masculinizing effects, but some experienced these to be outweighed by the desired effects. Masculinizing effects that could be mediated by hair removal or breast implants were easier to process than a deepened voice. As very few women were open with others about their AAS use, the voice change could disclose use and was often accompanied by feelings of shame and regret. Absence of menstruation and its return following cessation were used to monitor effect, normal function and safety when deciding when to start a new cycle. Clitoral enlargement gave rise to shame and reduced self-esteem, but negative emotions could be reduced by a positive partner response. Increased libido was common and gave rise to positive and negative experiences, depending on life situation, partner status, whether the partner used AAS simultaneously and whether genital changes had also been experienced.

Conclusion: Women who use AAS are at risk of developing irreversible masculinizing effects that are difficult to process and that may negatively influence self-esteem, social life and sexual function, both during and after use. More gender-specific information about women and AAS use is needed.

Development and application of analytical procedures for the GC-MS/MS analysis of the sulfates metabolites of anabolic androgenic steroids: The pivotal role of chemical hydrolysis

27 Jul 2020

Development and application of analytical procedures for the GC-MS/MS analysis of the sulfates metabolites of anabolic androgenic steroids : The pivotal role of chemical hydrolysis / Michele Iannone, Francesco Botrè, Dayamin Martinez-Brito, Roberta Matteucci, Xavier de la Torre. - (Journal of Chromatography B 1155 (2020) 122280 (15 October))

  • PMID: 32763466
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2020.122280

Abstract

In this work, we present a gas-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method for the identification of the sulfo-conjugate metabolites of pseudo-endogenous steroids (endogenous steroids when administered exogenously). We have preliminarily evaluated the performances of different preparations of sulfatases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Helix pomatia, characterized by various origins and catalytic activities, and compared the efficacy of the enzymatic hydrolysis with chemical hydrolysis, performed with a mixture of ethyl acetate, methanol, and sulphuric acid. A procedure for the selective isolation of steroid conjugates from the urine matrix has been designed and optimized, based on the "sequential" extraction of the glucuro-conjugated and of the sulfo-conjugated fractions, performed by two different direct methods, i.e. by ion paired extraction or solid-phase extraction. More specifically, the former method is based on the use of N,N-dimethylephedrinium bromide as the ion paired extraction reagent, while the latter on the use of WAX® (weak anion exchange) cartridges. The performance of the newly developed procedure has been assessed by the analysis of real urine excretion samples collected after the oral intake of a single dose of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) or androstenedione (AED), measuring the concentration of epiandrosterone (EpiA) sulfate. Our results have shown the following: (i) although the yields of chemical hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis are in some cases quite similar, the former is generally preferable since it results in the quantitative cleavage of sulfate moiety; (ii) ion paired extraction has been selected as the most reliable method for direct isolation of sulfate steroids from urine matrices; (iii) EpiA sulfate allows to prolong the detectability of DHEA and AED when compared to routinely used steroidal target compounds.

Acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock in a young physically active physician concurrently using the anabolic steroid sustanon: A case report

26 Jun 2020

Acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock in a young physically active physician concurrently using the anabolic steroid sustanon : A case report / Nasr Alrabadi, Mohamad Ismail Jarrah, Karem Hasan Alzoubi. - (Biomedical Reports 13 (2020) 3 (September); p. 1-4)

  • PMID: 32765853
  • PMCID: PMC7391296
  • DOI: 10.3892/br.2020.1321

Abstract

The association between ischemic heart disease (IHD) and the concurrent use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) is underestimated in clinical settings. The tendency of patients to not disclose AASs use may explain this underestimation. In the present case report, the clinical case of a 26-year-old physically active male, who was a physician, without any classical coronary risk factors, who presented with chest pain that was misdiagnosed by the peripheral care unit as skeletal muscle pain is described. Later, the patient was brought to our central hospital (King Abdullah University Hospital) suffering from a massive acute myocardial infarction with marked ECG changes and cardiogenic shock. Following stabilization of his condition, a detailed history of the patient was taken, during which the patient admitted that he was a chronic user of the anabolic steroid sustanon (250 mg, once/week for 6 months) and amino acid supplements (whey protein isolate, 6 tabs every day for 1 year). Specific cardiac markers were increased and the patient exhibited dynamic ischemic changes in his electrocardiogram. Notably, the coronary angiogram of the patient demonstrated ostial occlusion of the left anterior descending artery, which was associated with mid-right coronary artery embolic obstruction. Other than the anabolic steroids and protein supplementation use, the patient history, examination and lab evaluation were normal. During follow up, the patient continued to suffer heart failure with low ejection fraction. In addition, he developed apical thrombus 2 months after primary admission. The patient developed tachycardia in spite of optimal medical treatment and finally received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Physicians should always be aware of the possibility of AASs use in young physically active patients. IHD should always be suspected and investigated with typical chest pain in healthy young patients, even if regular risk factors are not present. Medical professionals should not be excluded as potential AASs users/abusers.

Effective treatment and prevention of attempted suicide, anxiety, and aggressiveness with fluoxetine, despite proven use of androgenic anabolic steroids

17 Aug 2020

Effective treatment and prevention of attempted suicide, anxiety, and aggressiveness with fluoxetine, despite proven use of androgenic anabolic steroids / Julio M.X. Amaral, Monica C. Padilha, Silvana V. Chagas, Julien S. Baker, Carrie Mullen, Leonardo Vieira Neto, Francisco R. Aquino Neto, Marcelo S. Cruz. - (Drug Testing and Analysis (2020) 17 August)

  • PMID: 32808487
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.2912

Abstract

The treatment of a man who attempted suicide after experiencing symptoms of anxiety and aggressiveness associated with the use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) is described. This report includes 30 days of inpatient treatment and a 6-month follow-up. Regular use of fluoxetine apparently prevented the onset of anxiety, depression, aggressiveness, and suicide ideation, even with the concurrent use of AAS. The urinary concentration of androgens, metabolites of AAS, and fluoxetine were monitored through analysis of urinary samples by the Brazilian Laboratory of Doping Control. Our results are congruent with previous findings describing the risk of suicide prompted by AAS use as well as the efficacy of fluoxetine in the treatment of mood disorders associated with the use of anabolic steroids.

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