World Athletics 2019 WA vs Elena Ikonnikova (2)

16 Feb 2021

Related case:

World Athletics 2019 WA vs Elena Ikonnikova (1)
March 3, 2020

Ms Elena Ikonnikova is an Anti-Doping Coordinator for the Russian Athletics Federation (RusAF). 

In August 2018 the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) of the IAAF (now: World Athletics) has reported an anti-doping rule violation of Tampering against the high jumper Danil Lysenko after the AIU had opened an investigation against the Athlete regarding his Whereabouts Failures.

With the assistance of the Russian Anti-Doping Agency (RUSADA) the AIU discovered that the Athlete had forged medical documents to the AIU. The AIU also concluded that RusAF officials had been involved in the provision of false explanations and forged documents to the AIU in order to explain whereabouts failures by the Athlete. 

As a result in November 2019 the AIU issued charges against Ms Elena Ikonnikova, RusAF and several other RusAF officials for committing multiple anti-doping rule violations:

  • Tampering or Attempted Tampering
  • Complicity
  • Refusal or failure to report an Anti-Doping Rule Violation
  • Refusal or failure to cooperate with investigations.

On 6 March 2020, in seperate disciplinary proceedings, the World Athletics Disciplinary Tribunal had already decided to impose an 8 year period of ineligibility on Ms Ikonnikova after the AIU had established that she had failed to provide digital evidence without compelling justification during their investigations. Furthermore she had disregarded to comply with the Order issued by the Disciplinary Tribunal in July 2019. 

In the current case Ms Ikonnikova failed to repond to the charges against her within the set deadline regarding the reported anti-doping rule violations. Consequently the AIU deems that Ms Ikonnikova has admitted the anti-doping rule violations, waived her right for a hearing and accepted the sanction proposed by the AIU. The AIU further considered the violations as a single violation and the sanction based on the anti-doping rule violation that carries the more severe sanction. 

Therefore the AIU decides on 16 February 2021 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on Ms Elena Ikonnikova to be served concurrently with the already imposed 8 year period of ineligibility.

SI 2020 SI Disciplinary Decision 20207147

15 Oct 2020

In September 2020 Sport Ireland (SI) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete IS-7147 after his A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substance LGD-4033 (Ligandrol). After notification the Athlete gave a timely admission, waived his right for a hearing, accepted a provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by SI.

The Athlete could not explain the presence of the prohibited substance in his samples and he notified SI and Triathlon Ireland of his retirement.

Therefore Sport Ireland decides on 15 October 2020 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete IS-7147 starting on the date of the sample collection, i.e. on 22 July 2020.

SI 2019 SI Disciplinary Decision 20197146

12 Oct 2020

Summer 2019 the Cologne Lab reported to Sport Ireland (SI) an Atypical finding for the prohibted substance Nandrolone regarding the weightlifter IS-7146.

SI kept the Atypical Finding confidential and did not notify the Athlete pending the outcome of their investigation it had opened. For this reason SI collected 7 samples out-of-competition from the Athlete between August 2019 and February 2020.

In August 2020 SI reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete SI-7146 after he refused to provide a sample out-of-competition as part of SI's investigation. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered in September 2019.

Further SI reported in August 2020 a second anti-doping rule violation for the use of Nandrolone after the Cologne Lab had identified the use of this substance by the Athlete at some point prior to the test in the summer of 2019.

In his defence the Athlete explained about his refusal that he was tested several times the last 18 months without any reason why he was tested so often. Also due to the COVID-19 he felt uncomfortable to be tested at his home as he wanted to project his family and so he didn't want to be in a small space with the DCO and the chaperone.

SI concludes that the Athlete failed to establish a compelling justification for his refusal to submit to sample collection. Further it rejected the Athlete's objections and contended that it had robust COVID-19 procedures in place in full compliance with the WADA-guidelines on testing during the pandemic.

Since the Athlete failed to respond before the set deadline SI deemed that the Athlete has admitted the violations, waived his right for a hearing and accepted the ban and applicable sanctions. SI deems that the two anti-doping rule violations are to be considered as a single first violation and the sanction based on the violation that carries the more severe sanction. 

Therefore Sport Ireland decides on 12 October 2020 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete IS-7146 starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 10 September 2020.

ISADDP 2019 SI Disciplinary Decision 20197145

3 Oct 2020

In November 2019 Sport Ireland (SI) has reported anti-doping rule violations against the cyclist IS-7145 after his A and B Sample tested positive for the prohibited substances Oxandrolone and Boldenone and their metabolites or markers. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete filed a statement in his defence and he was heard for the Irish Anti-Doping Disciplinary Panel. 

The Athlete accepted the test result and denied the intentional use of the substances. He explained that at the relevant time he had used several supplements purchased online by his brother from a number of health shops. He acknowledged that he had not checked these supplements before using nor had he mentioned these products on the Doping Control Form. 

Analysis of 3 supplements in question in a Laboratory in Dublin revealed the presence of Oxandrolone in the supplement Total War as unlisted ingredient. Analysis hereafter of this supplement in the Cologne Lab confirmed the presence of Oxandrolone. However it did not detect the presence of the substance Boldenone in this supplement. A new tub of Total War purchased by SI and analysed in the Cologne Lab confirmed that neither Oxandrolone nor Boldenone was detected in this product. 

SI accepts that the presence of Oxandrolone in the Athlete’s samples was the result of a contaminated supplement he had used but it contended that the Athlete failed to establish the source of the substance Boldenone. SI rejected the assertion that Boldenone as a derivative of Oxandrolone explained the presence of this substance in his samples since they are total different substances.

Further SI dismissed the assertion that the presence of Boldenone was the result of food contamination due to the found concentration of exogenous and synthetic Boldenone in the his samples was too high to be consistent with the ingestion of contaminated meat. 

The Panel finds that the presence of prohibited substances had been established in the Athlete’s samples and that he has committed anti-doping rule violations. The Panel deems that these violations are considered together as one single violation and that the imposed sanction is based on the violation that carries the more severe sanction. 

Considering the evidence in this case the Panel concludes that positive test for Oxandrolone was the result of the Athlete’s use of a contaminated supplement. Nevertheless the Athlete could not explain the presence of Boldenone in his samples nor establish grounds for a reduced sanction. 

Therefore the Irish Anti-Doping Disciplinary Panel decides on 3 October 2020 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 5 November 2019.

Doping in the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC): A 4-year epidemiological analysis

3 Dec 2020

Doping in the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) : A 4-year epidemiological analysis / Mohamad Y. Fares, Hasan Baydoun, Hamza A. Salhab, Hussein H. Khachfe, Youssef Fares, Jawad Fares, Joseph A. Abboud. - (Drug Testing and Analysis (2020) 3 December)

  • PMID: 33270353
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.2987


Abstract

Background: Doping is a practice that is present in many sports and organizations, including mixed martial arts and the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC). The aim of this study is to explore the epidemiological patterns of doping among UFC athletes.

Methods: We screened the official United-States-Anti-Doping-Agency® (USADA) website, the annual USADA reports and the official UFC website for information on fighters and anti-doping rule violations (ADRVs). Our dataset included gender, age, weight class, testing numbers, date of ADRV, type of ADRV, and duration of suspension. Appropriate statistical tests were conducted to assess for statistical significance.

Results: USADA tested 1070 UFC athletes 2624 times as of late 2015 up till the end of 2019 (N = 1070). A total of 209 adverse findings were recorded; out of which, 102 ADRVs were committed by 93 athletes (8.7%) from all weight divisions. This constituted an adverse finding rate of 16.55 per 1000 test and an ADRV rate of 8.08 per1000 test. Mean age of sanctioned athletes was 32 years. Use of anabolic steroids was significantly the most common ADRV recorded (p = 0.018). The men's heavyweight division had an ADRV rate of 19.3 per 1000 tests, significantly higher than that of women's bantamweight division at 2 per 1000 tests (p = 0.03), women's featherweight division at 0 per 1000 tests (p = 0.009), and men's flyweight division at 3 per 1000 tests (p = 0.035). ADRV rate showed a significantly increasing trend among men's weight divisions (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Doping is present in mixed martial arts. Increasing testing numbers, raising awareness and education on the risks of doping, and conducting further research on the issue is key to help resolve this problem.

Survey of protein-based sport supplements for illegally added anabolic steroids methyltestosterone and 4-androstenedione by UPLC-MS/MS

5 Nov 2020

Survey of protein-based sport supplements for illegally added anabolic steroids methyltestosterone and 4-androstenedione by UPLC-MS/MS / Somaye Alaedini, Maryam Amirahmadi, Farzad Kobarfard, Hossein Rastegar, Sasan Nasirahmadi, Shahram Shoeibi. - (Steroids 165 (2021) 108758 (January))

  • PMID: 33161054
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2020.108758


Abstract

There is some evidence that marketable supplements contain hormones not declared on the product label. The presence of these androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) in sports supplements can be considered an adulteration and affect the health of consumers, who are predominantly athletes. This study aimed to measure anabolic hormones (methyltestosterone and 4-androstenedione) in sport supplements. Ultra Performance Liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode was employed under the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) ion program. To overcome matrix effects and quantify the selected analyte, the calibration curve was made using Matrix Match method. The LOQ and LOD were 1 ng/g and 0.3 ng/g for both analytes. The recovery of 4-androstenedione and methyltestosterone was in the range of 86.87-107.35 and 77.31-113.98, respectively. In terms of reproducibility, CV % for 4-androstenedione and methyltestosterone ranged from 6.56 to 16.87% and 1.45-15.12%, respectively. 4-androstenedione was found in 11 samples including 9 whey as 1.578 ± 0.154 ng/g and 2 whey albumin samples with an amount of 1.134 ng/g and 1.474 ng/g. Consequently, continuous controlling of sport supplements comprising intentionally or unintentionally added androgens could be important for health and discuss in the context of compliance with anti-doping.

Analysis of cobalt for human sports drug testing purposes using ICP- and LC-ICP-MS

3 Nov 2020

Analysis of cobalt for human sports drug testing purposes using ICP- and LC-ICP-MS / Andre Knoop, Peter Planitz, Bernhard Wüst, Mario Thevis. - (Drug Testing and Analysis 12 (2020) 11-12 (November-December); p. 1666-1672). - Special Issue: The 38th Manfred Donike workshop on doping analysis

  • PMID: 33142033
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.2962


Abstract

Due to the current demands in the fight against manipulation of blood and blood components, commonly referred to as "blood doping" in sports drug testing, specific and sensitive detection methods enabling the detection of prohibited substances and methods of doping are required. Similar to illicit blood transfusions, erythropoiesis stimulating agents have been shown to be misused in sport, aiming at improving an athlete's aerobic capacity and endurance performance. Amongst other strategies, the administration of ionic cobalt (Co2+ ) can increase the number of erythrocytes by stimulating the endogenous erythropoietin (EPO) biosynthesis. Conversely, several organic Co-containing compounds such as cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) are not prohibited in sports, and thus, an analytical differentiation of permitted and banned contributions to urinary Co-concentrations is desirable. An excretion study with daily applications of either 1 mg of CoCl2 or 1 mg of cyanocobalamin was conducted with 20 volunteers over a period of 14 consecutive days. Urine, plasma, and concentrated red blood cells were analyzed for their cobalt content. The samples were collected starting 7 days before the administration until 7 days after. Total Co concentrations were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), which yielded significantly elevated levels exclusively after inorganic cobalt intake. Furthermore, a liquid chromatography (LC)-ICP-MS approach was established and employed for the simultaneous determination of organically bound and inorganic cobalt by chromatographic separation within one single run. The analytical approach offers the option to further develop detection methods of illegal Co2+ supplementation in sport.

Detection of clostebol in sports: Accidental doping?

29 Oct 2020

Detection of clostebol in sports : Accidental doping? / Xavier de la Torre, Cristiana Colamonici, Michele Iannone, Daniel Jardines, Francesco Molaioni, Francesco Botrè. - (Drug Testing and Analysis 12 (2020) 11-12 (November-December); p. 1561-1569). - Special Issue: The 38th Manfred Donike workshop on doping analysis

  • PMID: 33119965
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.2951


Abstract

The detection of clostebol misuse in sports has been growing recently, especially in Italy, due to the ample availability of pharmaceutical formulations containing clostebol acetate (Trofodermin®) and the use of more sensitive instrumentation by the antidoping laboratories. Most of these cases have been claimed to be related to a nonconscious use of the drug or through contact with relatives or teammates using it. We have investigated, through the application of the well-known and currently used gas chromatographic mass spectrometric procedures, the likelihood of these allegations and have demonstrated that after a single transdermal administration of 5 mg of clostebol acetate and a transient contact with the application area, it is possible to generate adverse analytical findings in antidoping controls. We have reviewed the Phase I and Phase II clostebol metabolism in order to generate evidences that may help the sport authorities reviewing these cases. The main clostebol metabolite (4-chloro-androst-4-en-3α-ol-17-one, M1) generally used at the screening level as well as other three metabolites (M2-M4) are mainly excreted as glucuronides, whereas M5 (4ζ-chloro-5ζ-androstan-3β-ol-17-one) is predominantly excreted as sulfate. Neither the 5α-reductases activity (impaired by the presence of the chlorine in C4) nor specific sulfotransferases present in the skin allowed a clear distinction of the administration route. Studies with a larger number of volunteers and probably investigating another physiological fluid allowed in antidoping such as blood are needed for a deeper investigation. It is not unreasonable to establish a reporting level for M1, maybe creating some false negatives but excluding nonintentional doping scenarios.

An Intramuscular Injection of Mixed Testosterone Esters Does Not Acutely Enhance Strength and Power in Recreationally Active Young Men

23 Sep 2020

An Intramuscular Injection of Mixed Testosterone Esters Does Not Acutely Enhance Strength and Power in Recreationally Active Young Men / Sara Amalie Solheim, Jakob Mørkeberg, Anders Juul, Stine Yde Freiesleben, Emmie N. Upners, Yvette Dehnes, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg. - (Frontiers in Physiology (2020) 23 September)

  • PMID: 33071818
  • PMCID: PMC7538707
  • DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2020.563620


Abstract

Purpose: Limited data are available on the acute performance-enhancing effects of single-dose administration of testosterone in healthy humans. Studies of testosterone administrations to healthy humans are rare due to the difficult nature and necessity of close clinical monitoring. However, our unique physiological experimental facilities combined with close endocrinological collaboration have allowed us to safely complete such a study. We tested the hypothesis that an intramuscular injection of 250 mg mixed testosterone esters (TEs) enhances physical performance in strength and power exercises acutely, measured 24 h after injection. Additionally, we investigated whether the basal serum testosterone concentration influences the performance in countermovement jump (CMJ), 30-s all out cycle sprint, and one-arm isometric elbow flexion.

Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 19 eugonadal men received either a TE (n = 9, 23 ± 1 years, 183 ± 7 cm, 83 ± 10 kg) or a PLA (n = 10, 25 ± 2 years, 186 ± 6 cm, 82 ± 14 kg) injection. Hormonal levels and the performance in CMJ, 30-s all out cycle sprint, and one-arm isometric elbow flexion were measured before and 24 h after injection.

Results: Firstly, an intramuscular injection of 250 mg mixed TEs did not enhance the vertical jump height in a CMJ test, peak power, mean power, and fatigue index in a 30-s all-out cycle sprint or rate of force development and maximal voluntary contraction in a one-arm isometric elbow flexion 24 h post-injection. Secondly, baseline testosterone levels appeared not to influence performance in strength and power exercises to a large extent in healthy, recreationally active young men.

Conclusion: A single intramuscular injection of 250 mg mixed TEs has no acute ergogenic effects on strength and power performance in recreationally active, young men. This novel information has implication for basic physiological understanding. Whether the same applies to an elite athlete population remains to be determined. If so, this would have implications for anti-doping efforts aiming to determine the most cost-efficient testing programs.

Detection of the selective androgen receptor modulator GSK2881078 and metabolites in urine and hair after single oral administration

10 Oct 2020

Detection of the selective androgen receptor modulator GSK2881078 and metabolites in urine and hair after single oral administration / Alina Rading, Patricia Anielski, Detlef Thieme, Annekathrin Martina Keiler. - (Drug Testing and Analysis 13 (2021) 1 (January); p. 217-222)

  • PMID: 33037775
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.2943


Abstract

Hair and urine concentrations of the nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulator GSK2881078 were examined following single oral administration to investigate its hair incorporation and estimate the general suitability of hair testing for selected androgen receptor modulators. Hair segments were collected following a single dose of 1.5 mg GSK2881078 by repeated shaving of scalp hair at Week 0 (blank), Week 1 (representing the pre-application period), Week 3 (ideally focusing the time of incorporation), and Weeks 5 and 9 (post-administration period). The intact compound and various (at least 4) hydroxy-metabolites exhibited similar elimination profiles. The peak urinary concentration (approximately 920 pg/ml) was observed after 8 h and is reduced to the detection limit (2 pg/ml) on Day 42 following administration of 760 μg GSK2881078. Correspondingly, hair concentrations of GSK2881078 (intact compound only) following a single oral dose of 1.5 mg GSK2881078 reached a peak concentration of 1.7 pg/mg in the segments collected 3 weeks post administration, representing the time of ingestion. The concentration rapidly declined to trace amounts of 0.7 (Week 5) and 0.2 pg/mg (Week 9), respectively. In conclusion, measurement of the intact compound GSK2881078 is feasible for both urine and hair analysis. However, concentrations in hair after single oral administration are in the low pg/mg range and can only be detected, if the segments cover the administration period.

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