IOC - Medals, Diplomas and Medallist Pins Reallocation - November 2020

25 Nov 2020

Medals, Diplomas and Medallist Pins Reallocation : Olympic Games London 2012 / International Olympic Committee Executive Board (EB). - Lausanne : International Olympic Committee (IOC), 2020


In a consultative meeting the IOC Executive Board (EB), took the decision to reallocate medals, diplomas and medallist pins from the Olympic Games London 2012 based on decisions made by the IOC Disciplinary Commission.

Following the disqualification of athletes in the sports of cycling and weightlifting, the results have been adjusted accordingly by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) and the International Weightlifting Federation (IWF) respectively.

In the men’s 105kg weightlifting event, the first- and fourth-placed athletes have been disqualified, so the gold medal is reallocated to Navab Nasirshelal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the silver to Bartlomiej Wojciech Bonk of Poland and the bronze to Ivan Efremov of Uzbekistan, and the subsequent ranking until eighth place has been adapted.

The third- and ninth-placed athletes in the men’s 56kg weightlifting event have been disqualified, so the bronze medal now goes to le Quoc Toan Tran from Vietnam, and the subsequent ranking until eighth place has been adapted.

The eighth-placed athlete in the men’s 62kg weightlifting event has been disqualified, and Ahmed Saad from Egypt is now ranked eighth.

In the women’s keirin event in cycling, the eighth-placed athlete has been disqualified, and Daniela Grelui Larreal from Venezuela is now ranked eighth in the event.

For reference, the reallocation of medals is not automatic and is decided by the IOC on a case-by-case basis. If the IOC decides to reallocate the medals, such reallocation takes place only after all the remedies of sanctioned athletes or teams have been exhausted and once all procedures are closed.

Where such samples are available, at least one sample from any athlete bumped up should be reanalysed and confirmed negative. If no sample is available to be re-analysed, the athlete is given the benefit of the doubt.

Since 2018, athletes can choose from six options for receiving their reallocated medals in a way that recognises their achievements. This is in accordance with the Olympic Medal Reallocation Principles that were proposed by the IOC Athletes’ Commission and subsequently approved by the IOC EB.

IOC - Medals, Diplomas and Medallist Pins Reallocation - June 2020

10 Jun 2020

Medals, Diplomas and Medallist Pins Reallocation

  • Olympic Games London 2012
  • Olympic Winter Games Sochi 2014
  • Olympic Games Rio 2016
  • Youth Olympic Games Buenos Aires 2018

/ International Olympic Committee Executive Board (EB). - Lausanne : International Olympic Committee (IOC), 2020


The International Olympic Committee Executive Board (EB) has approved the reallocations of medals, diplomas and medallist pins from three editions of the Olympic Games and one Youth Olympic Games following decisions made by the Court of Arbitration for Sport.

Reallocations concerned the Olympic Games editions of London 2012, Sochi 2014 and Rio 2016, as well as the Youth Olympic Games Buenos Aires 2018.

Following the disqualification of some athletes, the results have been adjusted accordingly by the International Federations involved.

iNADO Update #2020-06

3 May 2021

iNADO Update (2021) 06 (7 June)
Institute of National Anti-Doping Organisations (iNADO)



Contents:

iNADO Community

  • UK Anti-Doping launches four-year 2021 Strategic Plan
  • New International Cooperation Tool - Red Iberoamericana de Lucha contra Dopaje
  • European League of Football has signed a Contract with NADA Germany

Bulletin Board

  • National Anti-Doping Governing Observer - NADGO
  • Biathlon Integrity Unit Webinar
  • Reminder about Basecamp Clean-Up Action

Athlete's Voice

  • Cases of contaminated Medications – the Story of Brenda Martinez

People

  • KADA Secretary General retired

Science

  • "The Illusion of a short-term Gainvs. the Reality of longterm
    Pain" by Dr. Mark Lutomia
  • Longitudinal Evaluation of multiple Biomarkers for the Detection of Testosterone Gel Administration in Women with normal Menstrual Cycle
  • Understanding and building clean(er) Sport together: five European Countries examined Athlete's Views on Doping

Practical Development in Anti-Doping

  • Important Changes introduced by WADA
    • Implementation of Dried Blood Spot Testing
    • Changes to the Criteria for reporting Doping Cases
  • WADA 2020 Code Compliance Annual Report available

Feature of the Month

  • “Doping is the Negation of a Dream, it is the Disenchantment of Sport” – former Head of the French Anti-Doping Agency, Jean-Pierre Verdy publishes his first Book

iNADO Partners & Sponsors

  • New at the Anti-Doping Knowledge Center

In a Case of Death Involving Steroids, Hair Testing is more Informative than Blood or Urine Testing

15 May 2021

In a Case of Death Involving Steroids, Hair Testing is more Informative than Blood or Urine Testing / Pascal Kintz, Laurie Gheddar, Adeline Blanchot, Alice Ameline, Jean-Sébastien Raul. - (Journal of Analytical Toxicology (2021) 15 May)

  • PMID: 33991187
  • DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkab048


Abstract

A 59-year old male was found dead at home, with 2 empty vials of an oily preparation attributed to a manufacturer from East Europe. There was no label on the vial. The subject was a former weightlifter, also known as an anabolic steroids abuser. The local prosecutor ordered a body examination, which was unremarkable and allowed collecting femoral blood, urine and scalp hair (6 cm, brown). He was treated for cardiac insufficiency with quinidine. Biological specimens were submitted to standard toxicological analyses including a screening with LC-QToF, but also to a specific LC-MS/MS method for anabolic steroids testing. Ethanol was not found in both blood and urine. Quinidine blood concentration (791 ng/mL) was therapeutic. No drug of abuse was identified. In blood, testosterone was less that 1 ng/mL and no other steroid was identified. In urine, T/E was 1.56 and boldenone showed up at 9 ng/mL. The hair test results, performed on the whole length, demonstrated repetitive steroids abuse, including testosterone (140 pg/mg), testosterone propionate (605 pg/mg) and testosterone decanoate (249 pg/mg), but also boldenone (160 pg/mg), trenbolone (143 pg/mg) and metandienone (60 pg/mg). Given forensic laboratories have limited access to steroid urinary metabolites reference material due to specific regulations (to avoid testing athletes before anti-doping verifications), hair analyses seem to be the best approach to document anabolic agents abuse. Indeed, in hair, the target drug is the parent compound and, in addition, when compared to blood or urine, this matrix has a much larger window of detection. The pathologist concluded to cardiac insufficiency in a context involving repetitive abuse of anabolic drugs. This case indicates that more attention should be paid to anabolic steroids, in a context of sudden cardiac death.

Broadening the Horizon of Antidoping Analytical Approaches Using Dried Blood Spots

1 Jun 2021

Broadening the Horizon of Antidoping Analytical Approaches Using Dried Blood Spots / Mario Thevis. - (Clinical Chemistry (2021) 1 June; p. 1-3)

  • PMID: 34060612
  • DOI: 10.1093/clinchem/hvab074

Anabolic steroids: the physiological effects of placebos

23 May 1972

Anabolic steroids: the physiological effects of placebos / Gideon Ariel, William Saville. - Medicine and Science in Sports 4 (1972) 2; p. 124-126)



ABSTRACT.

Fifteen male varsity athletes were informed that some of them would be selected to receive an anabolic steroid (Dianabol). Instead, six selected subjects were given placebo pills. Taking the placebo apparently supplied the psychological inducement to increase strength gains above and beyond reasonable progression. Greater training gains were made during the placebo period in three out of four weight lifting exercises. The gains were statitsically significant when comparing the two regression lines for the pte-placebo and placebo periods.

This study is one of three in an investigation of the short and long term effects of an anabolic steroid (Dianabol) upon human performance.

Effect on sports drug tests of ingesting meat from steroid (methenolone)-treated livestock

1 Nov 1994

Effect on sports drug tests of ingesting meat from steroid (methenolone)-treated livestock / A.T. Kicman, D.A. Cowan, L. Myhre, S. Nilsson, S. Tomten, H. Oftebro. - (Clincal Chemistry 40 (1994) 11 Pt 1 (November); p. 2084-2087) 

  • PMID: 7955383


Abstract

Anabolic-androgenic steroids are widely misused in human sports and are also used as growth promoters in livestock. Athletes who consume meat containing such hormone residues may risk failing a sports drug test. Prompted by an athlete's defense case, we questioned whether the consumption of small livestock given doses of anabolic steroid, orally or intramuscularly, could generate positive results in samples tested by our analytical procedures. We analyzed urine from eight men who consumed chickens that had been either fed with methenolone acetate (1 mg/day) from day 0 to 21 or injected with methenolone heptanoate depot (1 mg/intramuscular injection) on days 0, 7, and 14 and slaughtered on day 22. No methenolone or characteristic major metabolite was detected in samples from subjects who ate meat from the orally dosed chickens. However, 50% of the samples collected 24 h after consumption of the intramuscularly dosed chickens were confirmed positive. Hence, eating meat containing small amounts of injected hormone may constitute a serious liability to the athlete.

Analysis of 19-nortestosterone residue in animal tissues by ion-trap gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

7 Jun 2011

Analysis of 19-nortestosterone residue in animal tissues by ion-trap gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry / Jin-qing Jiang, Lei Zhang, Guang-ling Li, Hai-tang Zhang, Xue-feng Yang, Jun-wei Liu, Ren-feng Li, Zi-liang Wang, Jian-hua Wang. - (Journal of Zhejiang University Science B (Biomed & Biotechnol) 12 (2011) 6; p. 460-467)

  • PMID: 21634039
  • PMCID: PMC3109148
  • DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B1000301


Abstract

A rapid sample treatment procedure for the gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination of 19-nortestosterone (19-NT) in animal tissues has been developed. In our optimized procedures, enzymatic hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase from Escherichia coli was performed in an acetate buffer (pH 5.2, 0.2 mol/L). Next, the homogenate was mixed with methanol and heated at 60 °C for 15 min, then placed in an ice-bath at -18 °C for 2 h. After liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane, the analytes were subjected to a normal-phase solid phase extraction (SPE) C₁₈ cartridge for clean-up. The dried organic extracts were derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA), and then the products were injected into GC-MS. Using electron impact mass spectrometry (EI-MS) with positive chemical ionization (PCI), four diagnostic ions (m/z 666, 453, 318, and 306) were determined. A standard calibration curve over the concentration range of 1-20 ng/g was reached, with Y=467084X-68354 (R²=0.9997) for 19-NT, and the detection limit was 0.3 ng. When applied to spiked samples collected from bovine and ovine, the recoveries ranged from 63% to 101% with relative standard deviation (RSD) between 2.7% and 8.9%. The procedure is a highly efficient, sensitive, and more economical method which offers considerable potential to resolve cases of suspected nandrolone doping in husbandry animals.

Anabolic agents: recent strategies for their detection and protection from inadvertent doping

14 Mar 2014

Anabolic agents : recent strategies for their detection and protection from inadvertent doping / Hans Geyer, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis. - (British Journal of Sports Medicine 48 (2014) 10; p. 820-826)

  • PMID: 24632537
  • PMCID: PMC4033149
  • DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2014-093526


Abstract

According to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List, anabolic agents consist of exogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), endogenous AAS and other anabolic agents such as clenbuterol and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Currently employed strategies for their improved detection include the prolongation of the detection windows for exogenous AAS, non-targeted and indirect analytical approaches for the detection of modified steroids (designer steroids), the athlete's biological passport and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the detection of the misuse of endogenous AAS, as well as preventive doping research for the detection of SARMs. The recent use of these strategies led to 4-80-fold increases of adverse analytical findings for exogenous AAS, to the detection of the misuse of new designer steroids, to adverse analytical findings of different endogenous AAS and to the first adverse analytical findings of SARMs. The strategies of the antidoping research are not only focused on the development of methods to catch the cheating athlete but also to protect the clean athlete from inadvertent doping. Within the past few years several sources of inadvertent doping with anabolic agents have been identified. Among these are nutritional supplements adulterated with AAS, meat products contaminated with clenbuterol, mycotoxin (zearalenone) contamination leading to zeranol findings, and natural products containing endogenous AAS. The protection strategy consists of further investigations in case of reasonable suspicion of inadvertent doping, publication of the results, education of athletes and development of methods to differentiate between intentional and unintentional doping.

Detection of stanozolol in the urine of athletes at a pg level: The possibility of passive exposure

27 Oct 2016

Detection of stanozolol in the urine of athletes at a pg level : The possibility of passive exposure / Christina Tsitsimpikou, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Demetrios A. Spandidos, Aristides M. Tsatsakis. - (Biomedical Reports 5 (2016) 6 (December); p. 665-666)

  • PMID: 28105335
  • PMCID: PMC5228393
  • DOI: 10.3892/br.2016.794


Abstract

Stanozolol is a synthetic heterocyclic steroid with anabolic and androgenic properties, which has been abused by several high-profile professional athletes. Stanozolol is also used in veterinary medicine to increase appetite, cause weight gain and treat certain types of anemia. The detection of stanozolol metabolites in human urine for doping control purposes depends on the analytical method applied. The most commonly applied methods in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)-accredited doping control laboratories are gas chromatography / high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). Recently, a new method has been published and validated that makes the detection of 3'-hydroxystanozolol glucuronide in urine possible in a concentration >50-fold less compared to the above-mentioned commonly used methods. It is common practice to administer breeding animals with steroid hormones in order to enhance their growth. Athletes who consume meat containing such hormone residues may be at risk of failing a sports drug test. A randomized study in the general population consuming meat should be conducted, monitoring the levels of 3'-OH-stanozolol glucoronide in human urine, in order to determine the threshold levels of passive exposure, if any, and therefore guarantee that any adverse analytical findings reported in the urine of athlete at a pg level correspond to stanozolol abuse for enhancing performance.

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