Welcome to DOPING.nl, the Anti-Doping Knowledge Center

This site has been established to host information about doping in the broadest sense of the word, and about doping prevention.


The Anti-Doping Authority Netherlands (the Dutch Doping Authority for short) established this site and maintains it. The Doping Authority was founded in 1989 and it is one of the oldest NADOs in the world. Doping.nl was developed with financial support from the Dutch Ministry for Health, Welfare and Sport.


This website was established because of the importance that the Doping Authority and the Ministry attach to the dissemination of information relevant to doping prevention. Disclosing and supplying relevant information is one of the cornerstones in the fight against doping in sport. However, in practice, a significant amount of information is still not available, or only available to a limited group of users. We therefore decided to bring together all the relevant information in a single site: Doping.nl.


The Doping Authority aims to supply as much information through this website as possible on an ongoing basis. The information will be varied but will focus primarily on: WADA documents like the World Anti-Doping Code, the International Standards like the Prohibited List, Doping Regulations, scientific articles and abstracts, decisions by disciplinary bodies (mainly CAS decisions).As well as making documents available, the Doping Authority aims to supply searchable documents when possible, and to add relevant keywords to ensure easy access.
In the future, Doping.nl will also become a digital archive containing older information that is no longer available elsewhere.

Target readers

This site has been designed for use by anti-doping professionals such as National Anti-Doping Organisations and International Federations but also for students, journalists and other people interested in the subject.

More information explaining how to use this website can be found under "help".

ECHR 48151/11 & 77769/13 NASS vs France

18 Jan 2018

Affaire Fédération Nationale des Associations et Syndicats de Sportifs (FNASS) et autres c. France (Requêtes nos 48151/11 et 77769/13) : Arrêt / European Court Of Human Rights (ECHR). - Strasbourg : Council of Europe (CoE), 2018. - (Requêtes Nos 48151/11 et 77769/13)

Originating Body Court:

  • (Fifth Section)

Document Type

  • Judgment (Merits and Just Satisfaction) Published in Recueil des arrêts et décisions 2018 (extraits)




  • 48151/11
  • 77769/13

 Respondent State(s)

  • France Judgment


  • 18/01/2018


  • Partiellement irrecevable (Art. 35) Conditions de recevabilité
  • (Art. 35-3-a) Ratione materiae
  • (Art. 35-3-a) Ratione personae
  • Non-violation de l'article 8 - Droit au respect de la vie privée et familiale (Article 8-1 - Respect de la vie familiale; Respect du domicil; Respect de la vie privée)


The Chamber judgement in the case of Fédération Nationale des Syndicats Sportifs (FNASS) and Others v. France (application no. 48151/11) the European Court of Human Rights held, unanimously, that there had been:

no violation of Article 8 (right to respect for private and family life) of the European Convention on Human Rights.

The case concerns the requirement for a targeted group of sports professionals to notify their whereabouts for the purposes of unannounced anti-doping tests.

Taking account of the impact of the whereabouts requirement on the applicants’ private life, the Court nevertheless took the view that the public interest grounds which made it necessary were of particular importance and justified the restrictions imposed on their Article 8 rights. It found that the reduction or removal of the relevant obligations would lead to an increase in the dangers of doping for the health of sports professionals and of all those who practise sports, and would be at odds with the European and international consensus on the need for unannounced testing as part of doping control.

The aetiology and trajectory of anabolic-androgenic steroid use initiation: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research

2 Jul 2014

The aetiology and trajectory of anabolic-androgenic steroid use initiation: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research / Dominic Sagoe, Cecilie Schou Andreassen, Ståle Pallesen. - (Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 9 (2014) 27 (2 July); p. 1-14)

  • DOI: 10.1186/1747-597X-9-27



To our knowledge, there has never been a systematic review and synthesis of the qualitative literature on the trajectory and aetiology of nonmedical anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use.


We systematically reviewed and synthesized qualitative literature gathered from searches in PsycINFO, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant literature to investigate AAS users’ ages of first use and source(s), history prior to use, and motives/drives for initiating use. We adhered to the recommendations of the UK Economic and Social Research Council’s qualitative research synthesis manual and the PRISMA guidelines.


A total of 44 studies published between 1980 and 2014 were included in the synthesis. Studies originated from 11 countries: the United States (n = 18), England (n = 8), Australia (n = 4), Sweden (n = 4), both England and Wales (n = 2), and Scotland (n = 2). One study each originated from Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, France, Great Britain, and Norway. The majority of AAS users initiated use before age 30. Sports participation (particularly power sports), negative body image, and psychological disorders such as depression preceded initiation of AAS use for most users. Sources of first AAS were mainly users’ immediate social networks and the illicit market. Enhanced sports performance, appearance, and muscle/strength were the paramount motives for AAS use initiation.


Our findings elucidate the significance of psychosocial factors in AAS use initiation. The proliferation of AAS on the illicit market and social networks demands better ways of dealing with the global public health problem of AAS use.

Looking ‘acceptably’ feminine: A single case study of a female bodybuilder’s use of steroids

17 Sep 2020

Looking ‘acceptably’ feminine : A single case study of a female bodybuilder’s use of steroids / Justin Kotzé, Andrew Richardson, Georgios A. Antonopoulos. - (Performance Enhancement & Health (2020) 100174 (17 September); p. 1-7)

  • DOI: 10.1016/j.peh.2020.100174


This article aims to shed some light on the motivations for and methods of female steroid consumption apropos broader changes in female body image ideals. Moreover, the study attempts to explore the connections between the competitive logic of liberal-postmodern consumer capitalism, ‘competitive femininity’ and steroid use. There is a growing consensus that an increasing number of women are consuming steroids, yet this phenomenon remains relatively under-researched and as such not much is known about this particular group of users. Utilising a single in-depth case study, this paper offers some additional insight gleaned from an ethnographic interview with a female bodybuilder who uses steroids. Her narrative elucidates some of the risks, harms and motivations for steroid consumption alongside broader changes in female body image ideals. Among the central findings, this paper highlights that the female bodybuilder is not resisting cultural norms but rather hyper-conforming to them by over-identifying with a hyper-idealised form of what constitutes ‘acceptable femininity’. We conclude that steroid consumption retains a strong connection to the desire for aesthetic appeal and that both short and long-term motivations for using steroids are grounded in the drive for conformity. This has pertinent clinical implications for health professionals, particularly in relation to the efficacy of attempts to reduce steroid consumption by warning users of the potential adverse health effects.

Fifty shades of grey? On the concept of grey zones in elite cycling

20 Sep 2020

Fifty shades of grey? On the concept of grey zones in elite cycling / Bertrand Fincoeur, April Henning, Fabien Ohl. - (Performance Enhancement & Health (2020) 100179 (20 September); p. 1-9)

  • DOI: 10.1016/j.peh.2020.100179


In this article, we elaborate on grey-area concepts in elite cycling. First, we show how grey areas take place in a certain lack of conceptual clarity in anti-doping regulations. Then, we analyse the changing attitudes of elite cycling stakeholders towards grey zones. Finally, we discuss our results by articulating the stance on grey areas with the quest for performance enhancement which characterizes any elite sport culture, including elite cycling.

More than unnatural masculinity: Gendered and queer perspectives on human enhancement drugs

12 Jun 2019

More than unnatural masculinity : Gendered and queer perspectives on human enhancement drugs / Kathryn (Kate) Henne, Bridget Livingstone

Published in: Human Enhancement Drugs. - Routledge, 2019. - (Chapter 2; p. 13-26)

  • DOI: 10.4324/9781315148328-2


Popularized discourses surrounding human enhancement drugs often evoke gendered beliefs that frame this form of drug use as an unnatural pursuit of heightened masculinity. Not only is this form of drug use commonly associated with enhanced musculature, but it is also often presented as having aggressive side effects. Accordingly, many portrayals that reflect these embedded beliefs offer reductionist depictions of the diverse practices of human enhancement. This chapter departs from common perceptions to consider critically how gendered and sexualized norms inform understandings of human enhancement drug use in society. It builds upon earlier feminist and queer arguments that the study of gendered issues requires engaging questions of sexuality, as well as other interrelated formations of inequality. To do so, this chapter reflects on empirical research and critical theoretical perspectives, focusing on gendered and queer approaches that can aid in deconstructing the use of such drugs and societal anxieties about them. It contends that widespread concerns about human enhancement drugs being unnatural—and in turn seemingly unhealthy—are inextricably linked to heteronormative ideologies. It also illuminates how different feminist and queer perspectives can aid in destabilizing tacit assumptions about human enhancement drugs and their use.

Adverse Effects, Health Service Engagement, and Service Satisfaction Among Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Users

31 Mar 2017

Adverse Effects, Health Service Engagement, and Service Satisfaction Among Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Users / Renee Zahnow, Jim McVeigh, Jason Ferris, Adam R. Winstock. - (Contemporary Drug Problems 44 (2017) 1 (1 March); p. 69-83)

  • DOI: 10.1177%2F0091450917694268


There are a number of adverse health effects associated with the use of anabolic androgenic steroids
(AAS), ranging from mood disturbances to gynecomastia and impaired sexual function. Despite the potentially serious nature of adverse effects, evidence suggests that users are reluctant to seek medical assistance. This study explores factors associated with health service engagement and treatments related to service satisfaction among a sample of AAS users. The analyses are based on a sample of 195 respondents from the Global Drug Survey 2015 who reported using steroids in the previous 12-month period and experiencing concerns about adverse health effects. The results indicate reluctance among AAS users to engage with health services, with only 35.23% reporting that they visited a doctor when experiencing concerns about adverse effects. Concern about sexual function increased the likelihood that users engaged with health services, while concern about changes in sexual organs decreased the odds of service engagement. Among AAS users who engaged with health services, individuals who received a mental health assessment or diabetes test rated the service as more helpful than those who did not; a finding that resonates with literature indicating a desire among AAS users to monitor the health impacts of their drug use and respond to issues as they arise. While more research is needed, the present results underscore a need for nonjudgmental health services aimed at assisting AAS users to monitor adverse effects and minimize harm through early intervention.

Alternative markers for Methylnortestosterone misuse in human urine

30 Jun 2020

Alternative markers for Methylnortestosterone misuse in human urine / Panagiotis Sakellariou, Polyxeni Kiousi, Argyro G. Fragkaki, Emmanouil Lyris, Michael Petrou, Costas Georgakopoulos, Yiannis S. Angelis. - (Drug Testing and Analysis (2020, 30 June))

  • PMID: 32602999
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.2887


Methylnortestosterone is a progestin and synthetic androgenic anabolic steroid, prohibited by WADA. Methylnortestosterone misuse is commonly detected by monitoring the parent compound and its main metabolites, 17α-methyl-5α-estrane-3α, 17β-diol (M1) and 17α-methyl-5β-estrane-3α, 17β-diol (M2), in the glucuronide fraction. In the current study, a direct detection of methylnortestosterone sulfo-conjugated metabolites after ethyl acetate extraction and analysis by LC/Q/TOF-MS in negative ionization mode was performed, detecting two main sulfate metabolites (S1, S2). For the characterization of metabolites, samples from the excretion study, were additionally analyzed by GC-MS, after solvolysis and per TMS derivatization. RT and MS data collected, were compared with RT and MS data from metabolites of 17z-methyl-5α/β-estrane-3α/β, 17z-diols structures with prefixed stereochemistry at 3 and 5 positions, synthesized through Grignard reaction from 19-noretiocholanolone, 19-norandrosterone and 19-norepiandrosterone. Confirmed sulfate metabolites were S1, 17α-methyl-5α-estrane-3α, 17β-diol 3α sulfate (detected up to 72 h) and S2, 17α-methyl-5β-estrane-3α, 17β-diol 3α sulfate (detected up to 192 h). Furthermore, applying targeted analysis based on RT and MS data of the synthesized metabolites two additional metabolites M3, 17β-methyl-5β-estrane-3α, 17α-diol and M4, 17β-methyl-5α-estrane-3α, 17α-diol were detected in the glucuronide fraction and one more metabolite (S3) 17β-methyl-5β-estrane-3α, 17α-diol was detected in the sulfate fraction in lower abundance until the end of the excretion study (192 h). Interestingly, S2 could also be detected after the direct analysis of non-hydrolyzed steroid by GC-MS/MS as artifact, following normal ProcIV anabolic steroid procedure and using diethylether as extraction solvent.

Perceptions of assisted cognitive and sport performance enhancement among university students in England

15 Feb 2015

Perceptions of assisted cognitive and sport performance enhancement among university students in England / Elisabeth Julie Vargo, Ricky A. James, Kofi Agyemana, Thomas MacPhee, Ross McIntyre, Flaminia Ronca, Andrea Petróczi. - (Performance Enhancement & Health 3 (2014) 2 (June); p. 66-77)

  • DOI: 10.1016/j.peh.2015.02.001


There has been an ongoing research effort to understand the morality of athletes using prescription and illicit drugs to enhance sporting performance. By comparison, perceptions around the ethics of university students using prescription drugs to enhance academic performance (known as cognitive enhancement or neuroenhancement) are less well understood. This study compared how university students responded to the ethical considerations of using performance enhancing substances across sporting and academic contexts. A total of 98 participants from universities in the United Kingdom completed a Brief Implicit Association Test, a brief version of the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale, an explicit cognitive enhancer attitude assessment and reported their views on four scenarios regarding sports doping and the use of cognitive enhancers by university students. The implicit association did not show a significant polarisation of students’ moral attitudes. Explicit measures showed a stronger disagreement towards doping behaviours. Those professionally involved in sport found chemical enhancement more acceptable than other respondents, suggesting an instrumental viewpoint and a transfer of social knowledge from one domain of drug use to the other. Participants perceived the use of enhancers in sport and education as “cheating” when it affected others, but believed cognitive enhancement could be necessary due to competitiveness of the job market. Results suggest that chemical enhancement was considered acceptable by some student groups. The proportion of the sample knowing someone who used cognitive enhancers (13%) or someone who doped (19%) suggests that substance based performance enhancement may be normalising and increasing in popularity.

Muscle Dysmorphia: An Overview of Clinical Features and Treatment Options

1 Nov 2017

Muscle Dysmorphia : An Overview of Clinical Features and Treatment Options / Mitchell L. Cunningham, Scott Griffiths, Deborah Mitchison, Jonathan M. Mond, David Castle, Stuart B. Murray, - (Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 31 (2017) 4; p. 255-271)

  • DOI: 10.1891/0889-8391.31.4.255
  • PMID: 32755900


An increasing public and empirical focus on male body image indicates that muscularity is a preeminent concern among boys and men. For some, these concerns develop into a complex and disabling psychiatric disorder termed muscle dysmorphia (MD), the hallmark of which is an intense preoccupation regarding one’s (subjectively) insufficient muscularity. Treatment of MD is critical; however, evidence to inform treatment approaches is sorely lacking. The purpose of this article is twofold. First, we provide an overview of the clinical features of MD, drawing particular attention to the preoccupation, functional impairment and psychiatric comorbidity associated with the disorder. Second, we discuss and recommend potential treatment directions for MD, including techniques that have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of related disorders, namely, body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders (and anorexia nervosa in particular). Psychotherapeutic techniques, including cognitive restructuring of deleterious perfectionistic and egosyntonic beliefs, and dialectical behavioral techniques to improve the repertoire of emotion regulation skills available to afflicted individuals, are discussed, in addition to sychopharmacological approaches.

Post-cycle therapy for performance and image enhancing drug users: A qualitative investigation

20 Nov 2016

Post-cycle therapy for performance and image enhancing drug users : A qualitative investigation / Scott Griffiths, Richard Henshaw, Fiona H. McKay, Matthew Dunn. - (Performance Enhancement & Health 5 (2017) 3 (March); p. 103-107)

  • DOI: 10.1016/j.peh.2016.11.002


Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic forms of the hormone testosterone and their non-medical use is related to increased muscle size, muscle mass, and strength. A primary concern regarding exogenous AAS use is its potential to suppress endogenous (natural) testosterone production. In response, some users seek out substances to use post-cycle to mitigate problems associated with the resumption of endogenous testosterone production. This study sought to understand issues related to post-cycle therapy (PCT) among a sample of performance and image enhancing drugs (PIED) users in Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 participants (n = 24 male) who reported the use of a range of performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs), including AAS, human chorionic gonadotropin, growth hormone, clenbuterol, tamoxifen, insulin, and peptides. Interviews were conducted in person or by telephone, recorded, and transcribed. Data were analysed following a process of thematic analysis. Three themes emerged: (1) access to PCT; (2) maintenance of gains, maintenance of health; and (3) PCT and links to mental health. Steroids were seen as easier to access than PCT; as such, participants tended to continue to use steroids rather than taper down their use, leading to health concerns. Participants wanted access to PCT for several reasons, including minimising any loss of muscle or strength gained through their PIED cycle; because they were concerned that they were no longer naturally producing hormones; or because they were concerned about their mental health, particularly when coming ‘off cycle’, and the need for PCT to help adjust. This study contributes to the existing literature suggesting that PCT may act as a harm reduction measure, allowing PIED users to safely reduce or cease steroid use or to address any negative effects from use, particularly those related to mental health.

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