Welcome to DOPING.nl, the Anti-Doping Knowledge Center

This site has been established to host information about doping in the broadest sense of the word, and about doping prevention.

Initiator

The Anti-Doping Authority Netherlands (the Dutch Doping Authority for short) established this site and maintains it. The Doping Authority was founded in 1989 and it is one of the oldest NADOs in the world. Doping.nl was developed with financial support from the Dutch Ministry for Health, Welfare and Sport.

Goals

This website was established because of the importance that the Doping Authority and the Ministry attach to the dissemination of information relevant to doping prevention. Disclosing and supplying relevant information is one of the cornerstones in the fight against doping in sport. However, in practice, a significant amount of information is still not available, or only available to a limited group of users. We therefore decided to bring together all the relevant information in a single site: Doping.nl.

Activities

The Doping Authority aims to supply as much information through this website as possible on an ongoing basis. The information will be varied but will focus primarily on: WADA documents like the World Anti-Doping Code, the International Standards like the Prohibited List, Doping Regulations, scientific articles and abstracts, decisions by disciplinary bodies (mainly CAS decisions).As well as making documents available, the Doping Authority aims to supply searchable documents when possible, and to add relevant keywords to ensure easy access.
In the future, Doping.nl will also become a digital archive containing older information that is no longer available elsewhere.

Target readers

This site has been designed for use by anti-doping professionals such as National Anti-Doping Organisations and International Federations but also for students, journalists and other people interested in the subject.

More information explaining how to use this website can be found under "help".

TJD-AD 2021-016 Disciplinary Decision - Boxing

14 Sep 2021

In February 2021 the Brazilian Doping Control Authority reported an anti-doping rule violation against the boxer after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Enobosarm (Ostarine) in a low concentration. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete filed a statement in his defence.

The Athlete denied the intentional use of the substance and asserted that a contaminated supplement was the source of the prohibited substance. He provided ABCD two opened vials with supplements compounded in a pharmacy. Analysis of these supplements revealed the presence of Ostarine in one of these supplements.

The Compounding pharmacy in questioned confirmed to ABCD that prior on the same day Ostarine was compounded for another person and consequently thereupon the compounding supplement of the Athlete got contaminated.

The Rapporteur finds that the presence of a prohibited substance has been established in the Athlete's sample and accordingly that he committed an anti-doping rule violation.

The Rapporteur concludes that the violation was not intentional and the result of a contaminated supplement. Considered was that he was a high level athlete, had received anti-doping education, and was tested before without issues.

Further the Rapporteur deems that the Athlete acted with some degree of fault or negligence because he used his own unprescribed compounding supplements, not the prescribed supplements of his sports federation, whereas he failed to mention his supplements on the Doping Control Form.

Therefore the TJD-AD decides on 14 September 2021 to impose a 9 month period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the sample collection, i.e on 22 January 2021.

TJD-AD 2021-004 Disciplinary Decision - Swimming

6 May 2021

Related case:

TJD-AD 2021-016 Appeal Decision - Swimming
July 5, 2021

In August 2020 the Brazilian Doping Control Authority reported an anti-doping rule violation against the parathlete swimmer after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Enobosarm (Ostarine) in a low concentration.

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the parathlete filed a statement in his defence. He denied the intentional use of the substance and assumed that the prescribed supplements from a compounding pharmacy were contaminated.

ABCD established that in the compounding pharmacy in question prior on the same day Ostarine was compounded for another person and thereupon the supplements were compounded for the Parathlete. As a result ABCD accepted that the violation was not intentional and that the source of the prohibited substance had been determined.

Further ABCD considered that the Parathlete was tested before without issues, that he acted carefully with his medications and that there had been delays in the proceedings not attributed to the Parathlete.

The TJD-AD Panel finds that the violation was not intentional and the result of a contaminated supplement. In view of the circumstances the Panel is divided on whether to impose a reduced sanction or only a warning on the Parathlete.

Finally by majority the TJD-AD decides on 6 May 2021 to impose a warning on the Parathlete.

TJD-AD 2019-142 Disciplinary Decision - Bodybuilding

12 Feb 2019

In December 2017 the Brazilian Doping Control Authority has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the bodybuilder after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substances Canrenone, Clenbuterol, Drostanolone, Stanozolol and Testosterone.

After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete filed a statement in his defence. He admitted the violation and denied the intentional use of the substances, whereas he claimed to be unaware of the anti-doping rules.

The Rapporteur finds that the presence of the prohibited substances had been established in the Athlete's sample and accordingly the he committed and anti-doping rule violation.

The Rapporteur deems that the violation was intentional and considers that there had been delays in the proceedings not attributed to the Athlete.

Therefore the TJD-AD decides on 12 February 2019 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the sample collection, i.e. on 9 December 2017.

TJD-AD 2018-042 Disciplinary Decision - Armwrestling

9 May 2018

In September 2017 the Brazilian Doping Control Authority (ABCD) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the armwrestler after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Hydrochlorothiazide.

After notification the Athlete filed a statement in his defence and he was heard for the Brazilian Sports Justice Anti-Doping Tribunal (TJD-AD).

ABCD established that the Athlete had mentioned several medication, including Hydrochlorothiazide, on the Doping Control Form, yet he had failed to apply for a TUE. The Athlete produced medical documentation about the prescribed medication he used as treatment for several conditions he suffered.

The Rapporteur finds that the presence of a prohibited substance had been established in the Athlete's sample and accordingly that he committed an anti-doping rule violation.

The Rapporteur concludes that the violation was not intentional and deems that the Athlete had failed to apply for a TUE. Further the Rapported considers that there had been delays in the proceedings not attributed to the Athlete.

Therefore the TJD-AD decides on 9 May 2018 to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete, starting on the date of the sample collection, i.e. on 15 July 2017.

iNADO Update #2022-01

10 Jan 2022

iNADO Update (2022) 1 (January)
Institute of National Anti-Doping Organisations (iNADO)



Contents:

iNADO Community

  • iNADO Season's Greetings
  • iNADO Live Chat  - Nick Paterson

Bulletin Board

  • Annual Banned Substance Review 2020 / 2021
  • iNADO Member-only webinar
  • WADA: Anti-Doping Rule Violation Report for 2019

People

  • Jane Rumble - New CEO of UKAD

Science

  • Study examines ligandrol to determine inadvertent or advertent doping
  • Psychological intervention as a powerful tool in doping prevention? 
  • 2022 Scientific Research Grant by WADA
  • Suggested minimum reporting level for diuretics

Practical Development in Anti-Doping

  • The Council of Europe Anti-Doping Monitoring Group
  • Move of the Analysis Department of the French-Anti-Doping Organization

Feature of the Month

  • INADO participate in the closing meeting of ERASMUS+ Programme Project IMPACT

iNADO Partners & Sponsors

  • New at the Anti-Doping Knowledge Center

Muscle dysmorphia and psychopathology: Findings from an Italian sample of male bodybuilders

17 Jun 2017

Muscle dysmorphia and psychopathology : Findings from an Italian sample of male bodybuilders / Claudio Longobardi, Laura Elvira Prino, Matteo Angelo Fabris, Michele Settanni

  • Psychiatry Research 256 (October 2017), p. 231-236
  • PMID: 28646788
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.06.065


Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the risk of muscle dysmorphia and psychopathological symptoms in an Italian sample of male bodybuilders.

Method: The sample was recruited online (145 men with a mean age of 30.0 years) and participants were asked to fill out the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI), Symptom Cheklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES-II), and to provide other socio-demographic data. Bodybuilders at risk of muscle dysmorphia display greater global psychopathology and present higher scores on all SCL-90-R dimensions when compared to bodybuilders not at risk of muscle dysmorphia. Furthermore, risk of muscle dysmorphia is positively associated to dissociative symptoms. The Competitiveness dimension and anabolic steroid intake were not related to muscle dysmorphia, while age appeared to be more significant. Findings are discussed based upon previous studies and directions for future research are suggested.

Muscle Dysmorphia and anabolic steroid abuse: Can we trust the data of online research?

20 Dec 2017

Muscle Dysmorphia and anabolic steroid abuse: Can we trust the data of online research? / Michele Settanni, Laura Elvira Prino, Matteo Angelo Fabris, Claudio Longobardi

  • Psychiatry Research 263 (May 2018), p. 288
  • PMID: 29290483
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.12.049

 

Severity of anabolic steroid dependence, executive function, and personality traits in substance use disorder patients in Norway

10 Jan 2022

Severity of anabolic steroid dependence, executive function, and personality traits in substance use disorder patients in Norway / Morgan Scarth, Ingrid A. Havnes, Marie L. Jørstad, Jim McVeigh, Marie Claire Van Hout, Lars T. Westlye, Svenn Torgersen, Astrid Bjørnebekk

  • Drug and Alcohol Dependence 231 (1 February 2022), 109275
  • PMID: 35030506
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109275


Abstract

Introduction: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), including testosterone and synthetic derivatives, are typically used to increase muscle mass. Many users develop a dependence on these substances, contributing to worsened physical and mental health outcomes. Aspects of personality and executive dysfunction may represent underlying vulnerabilities for developing dependence.

Objective: To identify levels of AAS dependence within substance use disorder (SUD) treatment patients and assess the relationship between dependence severity and personality traits and executive function (EF).

Methods: Data were collected from patients at 38 SUD treatment facilities in Norway. Questionnaires were completed for measures of personality and EF. Measures of symptoms of AAS dependence were used in latent class analysis to identify sub-groups of patients, which were evaluated for association with EF and personality traits, and compared with a group of non-AAS using SUD patients.

Results: Three classes were identified; largely reflecting low, moderate, and high symptoms of dependence. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that moderate and high symptoms were associated with several measures of EF and personality traits, particularly self-monitoring, antagonism, disinhibition, and rigid perfectionism while users with low symptoms exhibited higher capacities for emotional control and shift, and lower negative affectivity, relative to non-AAS using SUD patients. Backward stepwise regressions indicated antagonism, and decreased self-monitoring as key personality and cognitive characteristics of SUD patients with severe AAS dependence.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that specific executive dysfunctions and personality features, particularly those associated with poor emotional control, reduced empathy, and impulsivity are associated with more severe AAS dependence in the SUD population.

Keywords: Anabolic androgenic steroids; Executive function; Latent class analysis; Personality; Substance use disorder.

The Effects of Tamoxifen on Plasma Lipoprotein(a) Concentrations: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1 Jul 2017

The Effects of Tamoxifen on Plasma Lipoprotein(a) Concentrations : Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis / Amirhossein Sahebkar, Maria-Corina Serban, Peter Penson, Camelia Gurban, Sorin Ursoniu, Peter P. Toth, Steven R. Jones, Giuseppe Lippi , Kazuhiko Kotani , Karam Kostner, Manfredi Rizzo, Jacek Rysz, Maciej Banach

  • Drugs 77 (2017) 11 (July), p. 1187–1197
  • PMID: 28573436
  • PMCID: PMC5501893
  • DOI: 10.1007/s40265-017-0767-4


Abstract

Introduction: Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator widely used in the treatment of breast cancer. Tamoxifen therapy is associated with lower circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased triglycerides, but its effects on other lipids are less well studied.

Aims: We aimed to investigate the effect of tamoxifen on circulating concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] through a meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies.

Methods: This study was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42016036890). Scopus, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from inception until 22 March 2016 to identify studies investigating the effect of tamoxifen on Lp(a) values in humans. Meta-analysis was performed using an inverse variance-weighted, random-effects model with standardized mean difference (SMD) as the effect size estimate.

Results: Meta-analysis of five studies with 215 participants suggested a statistically significant reduction of Lp(a) levels following tamoxifen treatment (SMD -0.41, 95% confidence interval -0.68 to -0.14, p = 0.003). This effect was robust in the sensitivity analysis.

Conclusions: Meta-analysis suggested a statistically significant reduction of Lp(a) levels following tamoxifen treatment. Further well-designed trials are required to validate these results.

Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of tamoxifen and endoxifen

30 Apr 2019

Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of tamoxifen and endoxifen / A.B. Sanchez-Spitman, J.J. Swen, V.O. Dezentje, D.J.A.R Moes, H. Gelderblom, H.J. Guchelaar

  • Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 12 (2019) 6 (30 April), p. 523-536
  • PMID: 31008668
  • DOI: 10.1080/17512433.2019.1610390


Abstract

Introduction: Tamoxifen dominates the anti-estrogenic therapy in the early and metastatic breast cancer setting. Tamoxifen has a complex metabolism, being mainly metabolized by CYP2D6 into its 30-100 times more potent metabolite, endoxifen. Recently, a phase I study in which endoxifen as an orally z-endoxifen hydrochloride has been successfully evaluated.

Areas covered: the principal pharmacogenetic and non-genetic differences in the pharmacology of tamoxifen and endoxifen are evaluated. To this end, references from PubMed, Embase or Web of Science, among others, were reviewed As non-genetic factors, important differences and similarities such age, or adherence to tamoxifen therapy are comprehensively illustrated. Additionally, since CYP2D6 genotypes are considered the main limitation of tamoxifen, many studies have investigated the association between the worsened clinical outcomes in patients with non-functional CYP2D6 genotypes. In this review, an overview of the research on this field is presented. Also, a summary describing the literature about individualizing tamoxifen therapy with endoxifen concentrations and its limitations is listed.

Expert opinion: z-endoxifen hydrochloride is only investigated in the metastatic setting, still more research is required before its place in therapeutics is known. Similarly, monitoring tamoxifen efficacy based on endoxifen concentrations might not be overall recommended due to the limited evidence available.

Keywords: Breast cancer; endocrine therapy; endoxifen; pharmacogenetics; pharmacokinetics; tamoxifen; therapeutic drug monitoring.

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