Prevalence and profile of users and non-users of anabolic steroids among resistance training practitioners

1 May 2021

Prevalence and profile of users and non-users of anabolic steroids among resistance training practitioners / Ericson Pereira, Samuel Jorge Moyses, Sérgio Aparecido Ignácio, Daniel Komarchewski Mendes, Diego Sgarbi D.A. Silva, Everdan Carneiro, Ana Maria Trindade Grégio Hardy, Edvaldo Antônio Ribeiro Rosa, Patrícia Vida Cassi Bettega, Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues Johann. - (BMC Public Health 19 (2019) 1650 (9 December)

  • PMID: 31818274
  • PMCID: PMC6902556
  • DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-8004-6


Abstract

Background: To verify the prevalence and profile of users and non-users of anabolic steroid (AS) among resistance training practitioners.

Methods: An observational, cross-sectional survey was performed in 100 gyms in Curitiba city, involving 5773 individuals and self-administered questionnaires. The chi-square and z-tests of proportions were used for comparison between the groups (p < 0.05).

Results: 83.2% did not use, 9.1% formerly used, 3.4% currently used, and 4.3% intended used AS. The prevalence of former or current AS users was 16.9 and 6.5% among men and women, respectively. The prevalence ratios were as follows: 1) 2.6 male users for each woman; 2) 3.3 individuals aged 30-44 years and 2.8 individuals aged 18-29 years for each individual aged over 45 years. Beginners were not interested in using AS, but individuals who had trained longer had higher prevalence of AS use.

Conclusions: The gym environment encouraged the use of AS owing to aesthetic appeal. Thus, suggesting the need for actions to prevent abusive use of AS considering the practitioners profile (practitioners were young, university and single).

The Relationship between the reading of fitness magazines and conceerns with leanness and muscularity among college men : dissertation

1 Jan 2004

The relationship between the reading of fitness magazines and conceerns with leanness and muscularity among college men : dissertation / Magdala Peixoto Labre. - Gainesville : University of Florida, 2004



Abstract

The purpose of this dissertation was to gain a better understanding of the relationship between the reading of men’s fitness magazines and concerns related to leanness and muscularity. Previous research had found an association between the reading of these magazines and internationalization of the fit ideal, body dissatisfaction, and eating disorder attitudes among college men. However, little was known about the nature of this relationship.

The dissertation combined a quantitative content analysis of Men’s Health and Men’s Fitness magazines published from 1999 to 2003, with qualitative, in-depth interviews with 13 male undergraduates. Findings suggest that fitness magazines disseminate only one type of male physique as healthy, fit, and attractive: the lean and muscular physique, characterized by chiseled abdominal muscles. Dissemination of this ideal may have the positive effect of promoting involvement in healthy activities, such as exercising with weights. However, the ideal is an extreme, unrealistic representation, which may contribute to body dissatisfaction and engagement in unhealthy, appearance-driven pursuits. In fact, few men can achieve the ideal without doing so.

Interviews with college men suggest that they may be internalizing the ideal and engaging in behaviors designed to attain it, such as limiting carbohydrates and/or fat in their diets, increasing consumption of protein, exercising (particularly with weights), and using performance-enhancing supplements such as whey protein, creatine, caffeine, and ephedra to reduce body fat and increase muscle mass. Some of these behaviors, particularly the use of supplements, could lead to serious health problems.

Overall, the interviews did not suggest that exposure to the magazines was a significant factor in motivating either men’s acceptance of the lean and muscular ideal or their involvement in behaviors linked to the pursuit of that ideal. Rather, findings suggest that other influences, such as previous involvement in competitive sports or interactions with friends who engage in these behaviors, may contribute to an interest in body change that precedes the reading of fitness magazines. More research is needed to determine whether—and if so among which readers—exposure to fitness magazines may serve to reinforce existing concerns related to achieving a lean and muscular physique.

Adolescent boys and the muscular male body ideal

10 Oct 2001

Adolescent boys and the muscular male body ideal / Magdala Peixoto Labre. - (Journal of Adolescent Health 30 (2002) 4 (April); p. 233-242)

  • PMID: 11927235
  • DOI: 10.1016/s1054-139x(01)00413-x


Abstact

The past 20 years have seen substantial research linking the thin female beauty ideal portrayed in the media with a range of health problems among adolescent girls and women, including body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. Less attention has been paid to the ways in which the increasingly muscular male body ideal may be contributing to body dissatisfaction and harmful weight-control and muscle-development behaviors among adolescent males. 

Detection of human insulin-like growth factor-1 in deer antler velvet supplements

2 Sep 2013

Detection of human insulin-like growth factor-1 in deer antler velvet supplements / Holly D Cox, Daniel Eichner. - (Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 27 (2013) 19 (15 October); p. 2170-2178)

  • PMID: 23996390
  • DOI: 10.1002/rcm.6678


Abstract

Rationale: Reported incidents of the use of nutritional supplements containing deer antler velvet by athletes has increased significantly in recent years. The supplements have been reported to contain insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which is a banned substance included on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prohibited list. The presence of deer and human IGF-1 was tested in six commercially available supplements.

Methods: IGF-1 was extracted from the six deer antler velvet supplements using chloroform and acetonitrile precipitation methods. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) methods were developed to measure intact IGF-1 protein and IGF-1 trypsin peptides using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Five deer-specific and five human-specific multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions for intact IGF-1were measured as well as six deer-specific and seven human-specific MRM transitions for an IGF-1 trypsin peptide.

Results: The peak area from each MRM transition was used to calculate the product ion ratios relative to the most abundant transition. Product ion ratios measured in the supplements were matched to ratios measured in purified protein standards. A match to human IGF-1 was identified for all the MRM transitions measured in four of the supplements tested.

Conclusions: The presence of a pharmaceutical protein, human IGF-1, was confirmed in four commercially available products sold as all natural, nutritional supplements. These methods can be used to screen additional products to further prevent the illegal sale of adulterated supplements.

Synthesis and anabolic/androgenic evaluation of novel 9α-fluorosteroids

1 Jul 2009

Synthesis and anabolic/androgenic evaluation of novel 9α-fluorosteroids / M. Reyes-Moreno, J.A. Ruiz-García, Y. Ibarra-Reyes, A. Fuente-Hernández, H. Vélez-Castro, I. Hernández-Balmaseda, I. Martínez-Hormaza, I. Rodeiro-Guerra, J. Sandoval Ramírez, S. Meza Reyes, S. Montiel-Smith. - (European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 44 (2009) 11 (November); p. 4567-4571)

  • PMID: 19615789
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2009.06.025


Abstract

3Beta,11beta-dihydroxy-9alpha-fluor-5alpha-androstane-17-one (2), 3beta-acetoxy-9alpha-fluor-11beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstane-17-one (3), 3beta-acetoxy-9alpha-fluor-11beta,17beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-androstane (4), 3beta,17beta-diacetoxy-9alpha-fluor-11beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstane (5), 3beta-acetoxy-9alpha-fluor-11beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstane 17beta-propionate (6), 3beta-acetoxy-9alpha-fluor-11beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstane 17beta-enanthate (7), 3beta-acetoxy-9alpha-fluor-11beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstane 17beta-isobutyrate (8) were synthesized in the present study. Compounds 2 and 8 exhibited higher anabolic activity than the rest of the synthesized compounds. The structure of all these newly synthesized compounds was confirmed by analytic spectral data (mass, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR).

Libido as a motivator for starting and restarting non-prescribed anabolic androgenic steroid use among men: a mixed-methods study

25 Feb 2021

Libido as a motivator for starting and restarting non-prescribed anabolic androgenic steroid use among men : a mixed-methods study / Orlanda Harvey, Margarete Parrish, Edwin van Teijlingen, Steven Trenoweth. - (Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 2021, 25 February)

  • DOI: 10.1080/09687637.2021.1882940


Abstract

Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) are commonly used for their anabolic effects and the potentially detrimental consequences are well documented. Most studies focus on the motivations of increased muscle development and report increased libido as a secondary motivation. This paper aims to explore users’ reports of libido as a motivator for starting and restarting AAS use. This mixed-methods study comprised questionnaires with 133 adult male AAS users (with 38% selecting increased libido as motivation for using), and 23 semi-structured interviews with a sub-sample. Thematic analysis identified four interlinked themes: increased libido as a motivation for starting/re-starting AAS; increased libido/sexual performance as a beneficial effect; mixed experiences with physicians regarding libido changes and hypogonadism and reduced sexual functioning and fertility after AAS cessation. Increased libido was identified as a benefit by 90% but motivations for use changed over time. Reasons for AAS use included mitigating the effects of aging particularly linked to the concept of virility. AAS as self-medication for low testosterone needs further investigation as does the idea of hegemonic masculinity as a reinforcing driver for AAS use. This study highlights the need to consider how AAS users’ views of medical support impact self-medication choices.

Evaluation of erythropoietin biosimilars Epotin™, Hemax® and Jimaixin™ by electrophoretic methods used for doping control analysis and specific N-glycan analysis revealed structural differences from original epoetin alfa drug Eprex®

5 Nov 2020

Evaluation of erythropoietin biosimilars Epotin™, Hemax® and Jimaixin™ by electrophoretic methods used for doping control analysis and specific N-glycan analysis revealed structural differences from original epoetin alfa drug Eprex® / Perrine Capdeville, Laurent Martin, Sophie Cholet, Annelaure Damont, Michel Audran, Magnus Ericsson, François Fenaille, Alexandre Marchand. - (Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 194 (2021) 113750 (5 February))

  • PMID: 33234415
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113750

Abstract

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rEPO) biosimilars are copies of epoetin drugs developed after the first patents ended. However differences in the process of production can result in small structural differences when compared to the reference product. Differences in N-glycosylation profiles are of particular importance for rEPOs, because they can drastically impact the half-life in circulation and activity. Changes of structure can also impact electrophoretic profiles that are used to reveal the presence of a rEPO in a doping control sample. In this study three not well characterized biosimilars were evaluated (Jimaixin™ authorized in China, and Hemax® and Epotin™ authorized in Algeria). As these products could be used for doping, first their EPO profiles were determined using the antidoping methods (electrophoretic separation by the charge (isolectric focusing, IEF-PAGE) or the molecular weight (SDS-PAGE) and specific EPO immunodetection). Compared to the original epoetin alfa Eprex®, it revealed more basic isoforms for Epotin™ and Jimaixin™ after IEF-PAGE and a slightly lower molecular weight after SDS-PAGE in particular for Hemax®. To better understand the reason for these differences, EPO specific N-glycans were evaluated using two complementary approaches: MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with fluorescence detection. All three biosimilars presented a significant decrease in the major glycan forms of Eprex® along with an increase in less complex forms. Jimaixin™ and Epotin™ presented also a lower amount of fully sialylated forms. HILIC method also showed that O-acetylation level of sialic acid residues might vary from one rEPO to the other.

An optimized SDS-PAGE protocol with a new blotting system for the initial testing procedure of ESAs in doping control

2 Dec 2020

An optimized SDS-PAGE protocol with a new blotting system for the initial testing procedure of ESAs in doping control / Laurent Martin, Jean-Antoine Martin, Michel Audran, Alexandre Marchand. - (Drug Testing and Analysis (2020) 2 December)

  • PMID: 33269539
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.2601


Abstract

Recombinant erythropoietins (rEPOs) are still among the substances endurance athletes use for doping. Detection methods are based on an electrophoretic separation of the proteins followed by a western blot and immunodetection with specific anti-EPO antibodies. In addition to IEF-PAGE, the SDS-PAGE method has been used to differentiate endogenous EPO from rEPOs by their molecular weight (MW). However, to adapt to new generations of rEPOs exhibiting higher MW, which were not well detected after SDS-PAGE, sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (SAR) is now used instead of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for the initial EPO testing procedure on doping control samples. The SAR-PAGE method is nevertheless expensive as it requires frequent buffer preparations using highly purified sarkosyl powder. In addition, this reagent needs to be handled with care due to acute toxicity by inhalation. The aim of this work was to improve the SDS-PAGE method by increasing its sensitivity and transfer of high-MW rEPOs. First, using a biotinylated primary anti-EPO antibody and avoiding the use of a secondary antibody increased the general sensitivity of both SDS-PAGE and SAR-PAGE to all rEPOs about four-fold. Then, by changing the buffer system during the protein transfer, with a CAPS buffer and a discontinuous buffer transfer system, high-MW rEPOs, EPO-Fc and CERA were transferred with higher efficiency and detected with high sensitivity. This optimized SDS-PAGE protocol could be adopted by anti-doping laboratories as an alternative to SAR-PAGE.

Data from a microdosed recombinant human erythropoietin administration study applying the new biotinylated clone AE7A5 antibody and a further optimized sarcosyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protocol

21 Jan 2021

Data from a microdosed recombinant human erythropoietin administration study applying the new biotinylated clone AE7A5 antibody and a further optimized sarcosyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protocol / Christian Reichel, Damir Erceg, Barbara Lorenc, Veronika Scheiblhofer, Letizia Farmer, Katharina Zanitzer, Thomas Geisendorfer, Günter Gmeiner, Mario Thevis. - (Drug Testing and Analysis (2021) 15 January)

  • PMID: 33450134
  • DOI: 10.1002/dta.2989


Abstract

Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone, which stimulates the production of red blood cells. Due to its performance-enhancing effect, it is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). In order to reduce the detection window of EPO doping, athletes have been applying low doses of recombinant EPO (e.g., <10 IU/kg body weight, daily or every second day) instead of larger doses twice or more per week (e.g., 30 IU/kg). Microdoses of Retacrit (epoetin zeta), an EPO biosimilar, were administered intravenously and subcutaneously to human males and females. Urine and serum samples were collected and analysed applying the new biotinylated clone AE7A5 EPO antibody and a further optimized sarcosyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SAR-PAGE) protocol. With the improved protocol, microdosed Retacrit (7.5 IU/kg body weight [BW]) was detectable for at least 52 h after intravenous administration. Detection windows were approximately the same for serum and urine and doubled after subcutaneous administration (~104 h). Previous studies applying different electrophoretic techniques and the not further optimized SAR-PAGE protocol revealed considerably shorter detection windows for recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) microdoses. Because the new biotinylated antibody performed significantly more sensitive than the nonbiotinylated version, the new protocol will improve the sensitivity and hence detectability of recombinant EPO in doping control.

Keywords: SAR-PAGE; doping control; epoetin zeta; erythropoietin; microdosis.

Recovery of spermatogenesis following testosterone replacement therapy or anabolic-androgenic steroid use

23 Feb 2016

Recovery of spermatogenesis following testosterone replacement therapy or anabolic-androgenic steroid use / J. Abram McBride, Robert M Coward. - (Asian Journal of Andrology 18 (2016) 3; p. 373-380)

  • PMID: 26908067
  • PMCID: PMC4854084
  • DOI: 10.4103/1008-682X.173938


Abstract

The use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for hypogonadism continues to rise, particularly in younger men who may wish to remain fertile. Concurrently, awareness of a more pervasive use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) within the general population has been appreciated. Both TRT and AAS can suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis resulting in diminution of spermatogenesis. Therefore, it is important that clinicians recognize previous TRT or AAS use in patients presenting for infertility treatment. Cessation of TRT or AAS use may result in spontaneous recovery of normal spermatogenesis in a reasonable number of patients if allowed sufficient time for recovery. However, some patients may not recover normal spermatogenesis or tolerate waiting for spontaneous recovery. In such cases, clinicians must be aware of the pathophysiologic derangements of the HPG axis related to TRT or AAS use and the pharmacologic agents available to reverse them. The available agents include injectable gonadotropins, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and aromatase inhibitors, but their off-label use is poorly described in the literature, potentially creating a knowledge gap for the clinician. Reviewing their use clinically for the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and other HPG axis abnormalities can familiarize the clinician with the manner in which they can be used to recover spermatogenesis after TRT or AAS use.

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