Welcome

Welcome to Doping.nl, the Anti-Doping Knowledge Center.
This site has been established to host information about doping in the broadest sense of the word, and about doping prevention.

Initiator
The Anti-Doping Authority Netherlands (the Dutch Doping Authority for short) established this site and maintains it. The Doping Authority was founded in 1989 and it is one of the oldest NADOs in the world. Doping.nl was developed with financial support from the Dutch Ministry for Health, Welfare and Sport.

Goals
This website  was established because of the importance that the Doping Authority and the Ministry attach to the dissemination of information relevant to doping prevention. Disclosing and supplying relevant information is one of the cornerstones in the fight against doping in sport. However, in practice, a significant amount of information is still not available, or only available to a limited group of users. We therefore decided to bring together all the relevant information in a single site: Doping.nl.

Activities
The Doping Authority aims to supply as much information through this website as possible on an ongoing basis. The information will be varied but will focus primarily on: WADA documents like the World Anti-Doping Code, the International Standards like the Prohibited List, Doping Regulations, scientific articles and abstracts, decisions by disciplinary bodies (mainly CAS decisions).As well as making documents available, the Doping Authority aims to supply searchable documents when possible, and to add relevant keywords to ensure easy access.
In the future, Doping.nl will also become a digital archive containing older information that is no longer available elsewhere.

Target readers
This site has been designed for use by anti-doping professionals such as National Anti-Doping Organisations and International Federations but also for students, journalists and other people interested in the subject.

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More information explaining how to use this website can be found under "help".

Recently added documents More »

iNADO Update #2020-01

iNADO Update (2020) 1 (20 January) Institute of National Anti-Doping Organisations (iNADO) ____________________________________________________ Contents: iNADO Workshop 2020 - Agenda - Registration - Annual General Meeting Webinars - Tokyo 2020 Pre-Games Expert Group by the ITA (23 January) - Athlete Central & ADAMS by WADA (28 January) Research - Social Science Research - The public Perception of Anti-Doping in Switzerland - UKAD publishes Status Report on IPEDs in the UK - Excellence in Anti-Doping Science Award - Nomination Submission opened Anti-Doping Prevention - “Keep Football Clean” - Prevention in European Grassroots Football Job Vacancies Resources in Anti-Doping - New at the Anti-Doping Knowledge Center

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FINA 2019 FINA vs Ilya Zakharov

In October 2019 the International Swimming Federation (FINA) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Russian Athlete Ilya Zakharov for 3 whereabouts filing failures and 3 missed test within 12 months. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered but not accepted by the Athlete. The Athlete filed a statement in his defence and he was heard for the FINA Doping Panel. The Athlete was in the FINA Registered Testing Pool since 2010 and was tested before more than a hundred times without issues. The Athlete denied he intentionally committed the doping violation and explained the circumstances regarding the 3 missed test. In the matter of the first missed test the Athlete asserted that he was at home but the security guard at his apartment did not allow the Doping Control Officer (DCO) to enter his apartment building. For the second whereabouts failure he stated that he underwent medical treatment in a hospital for his knee injury early in the morning. For the third whereabouts failure the Athlete explained that he also underwent medical treatment early in the morning in a hospital for his stomach pain. The Panel accepts that the Athlete’s missed tests were inadvertent and that the second en third missed tests were the result of the medical treatments he underwent in hospitals for his health conditions. The Panel concludes that in these circumstances he forgot to update his one hour window on those days and that the Athlete’s degree of fault in this case is moderate for his failures. Therefore the FINA Doping Panel decides on 22 November 2019 to impose an 18 month period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the decision.

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ITF 2019 ITF vs Beibit Zhukavev

In August 2019 the International Tennis Federation (ITF) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Kazakh tennis player Beibit Zhukavev after his A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substances Heptaminol and Methylhexaneamine (dimethylpentylamine). After notification the Athlete gave a prompt admission, waived his right to be heard, accepted a provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by the ITF. The Athlete denied the intentional use, requested for a reduced sanction and assumed that the supplement ‘Nox Pump’ he had used was contaminated. This pre-workout formula was recommended to him by his cousing and he had used sachets of this supplement in December 2018. He explained that in July 2019 he saw the remaining two sachtets and had ingested half of a sachet before the match. He acknowledged that he didn’t check the ingredients of this supplement before using and he failed to mention this supplement on the Doping Control Form due to he didn’t understand the Doping Control Officers’s instructions and he was unaware the he could have a representative assist with translation. Analysis of the remaining sachet in the Laboratorium confirmed the presence of the prohibited substances with levels consistent with the concentrations found in the Athlete’s samples while these substances were not mentioned as ingredient on the product label of the sachets. The ITF accepts that the Athlete’s violation was not intentional and that he established how the substances entered his system. In view of the Athlete’s conduct the ITF holds that the Athlete established No Significant Fault or Negligence although his degree of Fault was still high. Further the ITF considers the Athlete’s prompt admission, his youth, his lack of anti-doping education and his effort in completing an online anti-doping education. Therefore the ITF decides on 9 January 2020 to impose a 20 month period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the sample collection, i.e. on 15 July 2019.

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ITF 2019 ITF vs Luciano Tacchi

In May 2019 the International Tennis Federation (ITF) reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Argentinian tennis player Luciano Tacchi (17) after his A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substance Cocaine. After notification the Athlete gave a prompt admission, waived his right to be heard, accepted a provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by the ITF. The Athlete denied the intentional use and asserted with experts and filed evidence that he inadvertently had ingested Cocaine through passive exposure through one or both two possible sources. On the first occasion, three days before the sample collection, the Athlete had attended a birthday party were he had close contact with a family friend, had used his mobile phone screen to watch videos while he was unaware that this family friend was a Cocaine user and had used Cocaine several times during the course of the party. On the second occasion the Athlete frequently stayed in the house of his aunt. Here he was also unware that her husband, his late uncle, had contamined the house with Cocaine. His uncle suffered from a Cocaine addition for many years, had reguraly consumed Cocaine in this house and after his death in 2018 apparently hidden deposits of Cocaine were found in the house. In support the Athlete produced statements of the family friend and his aunt and he filed medical evidence about his uncle’s addiction and treatment. The family friend admitted the use of Cocaine at the party and confirmed that he had interacted with the Athlete. The Athlete’s aunt confirmed her husband’s Cocaine addiction and the presence of Cocaine in the house. With support of an expert witness the Athlete produced the results of the analysis of his hair and toenail samples demonstrating that he is not a Cocaine addict, nor a recreative Cocaine user but that he had contact with an environment where Cocaine had been used. In addition the analysis of his aunt’s hair sample showed the presence of Cocaine consistent with environmental exposure. Considering the Athlete’s evidence and the unique and exceptional circumstance in this case the ITF accepts that the Athlete has established that it is more likely than not that the presence of Cocaine found in his sample was due to his inadvertent ingestion at some point prior to the date of the sample collection of Cocaine that was present as an environmental contaminant in the house of the Player’s aunt. The ITF holds that the Athlete’s violation was not intentional and concludes that the Athlete could not reasonably have known or suspected even with the exercise of utmost caution that simply by spending time in the house, after his uncle had passed away, the Athlete would himself be at risk of ingesting Cocaine. With No Fault or Negligence the ITF decides on 9 December 2019 for the disqualification of the Athlete’s results, to eliminate any applicable period of ineligibility and to lift the Athlete’s provisional suspension with immediate effect.

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ITF 2019 ITF vs Franco Gabriel Agamenone

In May 2019 the International Tennis Federation (ITF) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Argentinian tennis player Franco Gabriel Agamenone after his A and B samples tested positive for the prohibited substance Hydrochlorothiazide. After notification the Athlete gave a prompt admission, waived his right to be heard, accepted a provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by the ITF. The Athlete denied the intentional use of the substance and explained that he had used certain over-the-counter supplements and four prescribed Created Supplements. He argued that before using these Created Supplement he took necessary precautions to make sure that these supplements didn’t containe prohibited substances. In support he produced a statement from his physician and photos of these Created Supplements he had used. He acknowledged that he didn’t mention his supplements on the Doping Control Form because the Doping Control Officer only asked him about the medicine that he was using and not supplements. In the Montreal Lab both the opened and unopened bottles of the Created Supplements were analysed and they revealed the presence of Hydrochlorothiazide. The Lab confirmed that the levels of the prohibited substance detected in the Created Supplements were consistent with the concentrations found in the Athlete’s samples. The ITF accepts that the Athlete’s violation was not intentional, that he demonstrated how the prohibited substance entered his system and considered that he gave a promp admission and established No Significant Fault or Negligence. Therefore the ITF decides on 12 September 2019 to impose a 10 month period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the sample collection, i.e. on 26 March 2019.

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IAAF 2019 IAAF vs Kateryna Tabashnyk

In May 2019 the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Ukrainian Athlete Kateryna Tabashnyk after her sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Hydrochlorothiazide. After notification the Athlete gave a prompt admission, waived her right for a hearing, accepted a provisional suspension and the sanction proposed by the IAAF. The Athlete denied the intentional use of the substance and explained that in March 2019 at a training camp in Turkey she underwent medical treatment from her team doctor for several diagnosed disorders and had used several prescribed medication. When the team doctor had left Turkey to return to Ukraine the Athlete’s symptoms persisted. Her coach went to a local pharmacy in Turkey and purchased additional medicine beyond those provided by the team doctor to treat the Athlete’s symptoms, specifically the product Micardis Plus containing the prohibited substance. The Athlete acknowledged that she didn’t check the label or the packaging of the Micardis Plus before using it. The IAAF accepts that the violation was not intentional and that the Athlete demonstrated how the substance entered her system. The IAAF further considers that the highly experienced International-Level Athlete had self-diagnosed and self-medicated blood pressure problems, had failed to read the label, nor conduced any internet search of the product before using. The IAAF determines that her subjective level of Fault is at the low to middle end of the significant/considerable degree of Fault and that the period of ineligibility should be set slightly below the normal degree of 20 months. Therefore the IAAF decides on 13 January 2020 to impose a 19 month period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the sample collection, i.e. on 28 March 2019.

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IAAF 2019 IAAF vs Michelle-Lee Ahye

In August 2019 the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete Michelle-Lee Ahye from Trinidad and Tobago for her whereabouts filing failures and 3 missed test within 12 months. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete filed a statement in her defence and she was heard for the IAAF Disciplinary Tribunal. Regarding the 3rd missed test in April 2019 the Doping Control Officer (DCO) reported that on 19 April 2019 he tried to contact the Athlete at her property. He rang the bell and knocked repeatedly and he rang the two number he had been provided without success. The Athlete did not contest the missed tests in June 2018 and in February 2019 and sought to explain and to mitigate her fault by reference to the circumstances. However she contested the missed test in April 2019 and confirmed that the was indeed at the address as indicated in her whereabouts. She explained that in her building the doorbell to her apartment could not be heard on the second or third stories of the apartment and needed an electrical repair. The Panel accepts the DCO’s evidence and rejects the Athlete’s explanation for why she did not hear the DCO’s attempt to contact her on 19 April 2019. She didn’t provide a consistent explanation about the doorbell, nor did she provide an explanation for why she didn’t hear or answer her phone. The Panel concludes that the Athlete was negligent in respect of the missed test in April 2019 while she already had 2 previous missed tests within the previous 12 months. The Panel considers that the second missed test was not contested by the Athlete and she apparently gave an untrue explanation for the first missed test. Therefore the IAAF Disciplinary Tribunal decides on 7 January 2020 to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the third missed test, i.e. on 19 April 2019.

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Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome in a 25-Year-Old, Previously Healthy Kuwaiti Man

Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome in a 25-Year-Old, Previously Healthy Kuwaiti Man / Einas Alrashidi, Thamer Alessa. - (Hindawi Case Reports in Endocrinology (2019) 12 december; p. 1-4). - https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8919457 ___________________________________________________ Abstract Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) is a disease characterized by hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia associated with autoantibodies against endogenous insulin. We have described a case of a 25-year-old, previously healthy Kuwaiti man who was admitted to the Mubarak Al-Kabeer hospital with a history of recurrent hypoglycaemia. The patient revealed that he had taken several different injectable anabolic steroids and growth hormone with oral amino acids and other tablets (fat burners) for bodybuilding in the last two months. He denied knowingly using insulin or insulin analogues. The patient had elevated fasting insulin level (>301 uIU/mL) and elevated insulin autoantibodies (>100.0 IU/mL). After appropriate work-up, he was diagnosed with IAS. After treatment with prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day), the patient had complete recovery. In patients with repeated hypoglycaemia, IAS should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Glucocorticoid therapy can be effective for the treatment of hypoglycaemia in patients with IAS.

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Treatments for People Who Use Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: A Scoping Review

Treatments for People Who Use Anabolic Androgenic Steroids : A Scoping Review / Geoff Bates , Marie-Claire Van Hout, Joseph Tay Wee Teck, Jim McVeigh. - (Harm Reduction Journal 16 (2019) 75 (30 December); p. 1-15). - PMID: 31888665. - PMCID: PMC6937954. - DOI: 10.1186/s12954-019-0343-1 ___________________________________________________ Abstract Background: A growing body of evidence suggests that anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are used globally by a diverse population with varying motivations. Evidence has increased greatly in recent years to support understanding of this form of substance use and the associated health harms, but there remains little evidence regarding interventions to support cessation and treat the consequences of use. In this scoping review, we identify and describe what is known about interventions that aim to support and achieve cessation of AAS, and treat and prevent associated health problems. Methods: A comprehensive search strategy was developed in four bibliographic databases, supported by an iterative citation searching process to identify eligible studies. Studies of any psychological or medical treatment interventions delivered in response to non-prescribed use of AAS or an associated harm in any setting were eligible. Results: In total, 109 eligible studies were identified, which included case reports representing a diverse range of disciplines and sources. Studies predominantly focussed on treatments for harms associated with AAS use, with scant evidence on interventions to support cessation of AAS use or responding to dependence. The types of conditions requiring treatment included psychiatric, neuroendocrine, hepatic, kidney, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and infectious. There was limited evidence of engagement with users or delivery of psychosocial interventions as part of treatment for any condition, and of harm reduction interventions initiated alongside, or following, treatment. Findings were limited throughout by the case report study designs and limited information was provided. Conclusion: This scoping review indicates that while a range of case reports describe treatments provided to AAS users, there is scarce evidence on treating dependence, managing withdrawal, or initiating behaviour change in users in any settings. Evidence is urgently required to support the development of effective services for users and of evidence-based guidance and interventions to respond to users in a range of healthcare settings. More consistent reporting in articles of whether engagement or assessment relating to AAS was initiated, and publication within broader health- or drug-related journals, will support development of the evidence base.

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Enjoy the Sport - Schools Against Doping and Drug Dependence : A Health Education Intervention in Secondary Schools

"Enjoy the Sport - Schools Against Doping and Drug Dependence" : A Health Education Intervention in Secondary Schools / Daniele Masala, Valeria D'Egidio, Teresa Iona, Giuseppe La Torre. - (Igiene e sanita pubblica 75 (2019) 4 (July-August); p. 271-282). - PMID: 31887733 ___________________________________________________ Abstract INTRODUCTION The use of doping substances is growing not only in young athletes performing competitive and non-competitive sports, but also in amateur sports, thereby representing a social and public health problem. The aim of this study was to measure knowledge, attitudes and opinions on doping and drugs and their effects, among students of secondary schools, and to assess the effectiveness of a health education intervention. "Enjoy the Sport- the school against doping and addiction 2.0" is a program developed to discourage the use of drugs, in particular doping drugs, by introducing information on the origins, on the effects of drugs and examples of appropriate lifestyles. This project was conceived by C.I.S.C.O.D. (Comitato Italiano Sport Contro Droga), an association of the C.O.N.I. and carried out with its support. MATERIALS AND METHODS The "Enjoy" project was a study with a one-arm experimental design and with a pre-post evaluation. A multiple-choice questionnaire was used to measure adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and opinions on doping and its effects. A descriptive analysis and post-pre intervention comparison was performed with the McNemar test. RESULTS There was a significant increase in participants' knowledge of doping substances indicated by the WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) (p<0.001) and a better understanding of the meaning of the term "doping". A decrease in the number of adolescents who would use doping substances (pre = 0.06%; post = 0.0%) was observed, as well as an increase in the number of adolescents who do not consider fair that athletes of any level should use substances that alter their performance (pre = 83.7%; post = 85%). A significant increase was observed in the proportion of participants who believe that athletes should not use doping substances because they are harmful to the human organism (pre = 38.6%; post = 51.7%) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS The project "Enjoy the Sport" contributed to increasing the health literacy of secondary school students about doping (and consequent awareness of the negative aspects of drug use). Schools, therefore, are an appropriate setting for implementing educational interventions for the prevention of doping. However, it is fundamental to integrate knowledge and action, especially in the context of family, sport and sports associations.

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