Welcome

Welcome to Doping.nl, the Anti-Doping Knowledge Center.
This site has been established to host information about doping in the broadest sense of the word, and about doping prevention.

Initiator
The Anti-Doping Authority Netherlands (the Dutch Doping Authority for short) established this site and maintains it. The Doping Authority was founded in 1989 and it is one of the oldest NADOs in the world. Doping.nl was developed with financial support from the Dutch Ministry for Health, Welfare and Sport.

Goals
This website  was established because of the importance that the Doping Authority and the Ministry attach to the dissemination of information relevant to doping prevention. Disclosing and supplying relevant information is one of the cornerstones in the fight against doping in sport. However, in practice, a significant amount of information is still not available, or only available to a limited group of users. We therefore decided to bring together all the relevant information in a single site: Doping.nl.

Activities
The Doping Authority aims to supply as much information through this website as possible on an ongoing basis. The information will be varied but will focus primarily on: WADA documents like the World Anti-Doping Code, the International Standards like the Prohibited List, Doping Regulations, scientific articles and abstracts, decisions by disciplinary bodies (mainly CAS decisions).As well as making documents available, the Doping Authority aims to supply searchable documents when possible, and to add relevant keywords to ensure easy access.
In the future, Doping.nl will also become a digital archive containing older information that is no longer available elsewhere.

Target readers
This site has been designed for use by anti-doping professionals such as National Anti-Doping Organisations and International Federations but also for students, journalists and other people interested in the subject.

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Recently added documents More »

Development and validation of a semi-quantitative ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for screening of selective androgen receptor modulators in urine

Development and validation of a semi-quantitative ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for screening of selective androgen receptor modulators in urine / Emiliano Ventura, Anna Gadaja, Gail Monteith, Alexis Ripoche, Jim Healy, Francesco Botrè, Saskia S. Sterk, Tom Buckley, Mark H. Mooney. - (Journal of Chromathography A (2019) 22 April; p. 1-14). - PMID: 31053351 - DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2019.04.050 ___________________________________________________ Abstract A semi-quantitative method was developed to monitor the misuse of 15 SARM compounds belonging to nine different families, in urine matrices from a range of species (equine, canine, human, bovine and murine). SARM residues were extracted from urine (200 μL) with tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME) without further clean-up and analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A 12 min gradient separation was carried out on a Luna Omega Polar C18 column, employing water and methanol, both containing 0.1% acetic acid (v/v), as mobile phases. The mass spectrometer was operated both in positive and negative electrospray ionisation modes (ESI±), with acquisition in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Validation was performed according to the EU Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria and European Union Reference Laboratories for Residues (EU-RLs) guidelines with CCβ values determined at 1 ng mL−1, excluding andarine (2 ng mL−1) and BMS-564929 (5 ng mL−1), in all species. This rapid, simple and cost effective assay was employed for screening of bovine, equine, canine and human urine to determine the potential level of SARMs abuse in stock farming, competition animals as well as amateur and elite athletes, ensuring consumer safety and fair play in animal and human performance sports.

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High Resistance Training Volume and Low Caloric and Protein Intake Are Associated with Detrimental Alterations in Body Composition of an Amateur Bodybuilder Using Anabolic Steroids: A Case Report

High Resistance Training Volume and Low Caloric and Protein Intake Are Associated with Detrimental Alterations in Body Composition of an Amateur Bodybuilder Using Anabolic Steroids: A Case Report / Ricardo Viana, Paulo Gentil, Eloy Brasileiro, Gustavo Pimentel, Rodrigo Vancini, Marilia Andrade, Claudio De Lira. - (Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology 2 (2017) 4 (13 October); p. 1-9). - Doi:10.3390/jfmk2040037 _________________________________________________ Abstract Many bodybuilders use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) to potentiate muscle mass gain as a result of specific resistance training and nutrition. The case we describe hereafter outlines alterations in body composition of an amateur bodybuilder during his pre-competitive period (11 weeks). The Participant was a 28-year old Caucasian male who was aiming to participate in his first bodybuilding competition under the “Men’s Physique” category. The Participant self-administered AAS for the whole pre-competitive period, followed a 13 set-meal plan consisting of 10 daily meals interspersed by approximately 2 h, and performed six high-volume resistance-training sessions a week. Body mass and anthropometric variables were measured at the beginning, during and at the end of his pre-competitive period. Dietetic analysis revealed a reduction in protein intake at the 10th (% decrease: −51.3%) and 11th weeks (% decrease: −64.5%) and in calorie intake at the 10th (% decrease: −57.9%) and 11th weeks (% decrease: −59.5%) in comparison to the 1st week. As a result, the Participant reduced both total body mass and fat percentage. However, there was a reduction in absolute fat free mass, despite the use of AAS. Apparently, the combination of excessive volumes of training with inadequate protein consumption was responsible for this outcome.

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Urinary Excretion of Amphetamine after Termination of Drug Abuse

Urinary Excretion of Amphetamine after Termination of Drug Abuse / Anne Smith-Kieland, Bjørn Skuterud, Jørg Mørland. - (Journal of Analytical Toxicology 21 (1997) 5 (September) ; p. 325-329). - PMID: 9288582. - - DOI: 10.1093/jat/21.5.325 ___________________________________________________ Abstract Important issues in urinary drug testing are the variability between consecutive urine specimens, the duration of positive specimens after last intake, and the usefulness of creatinine concentration to correct for variability in urine concentration. These issues were addressed in the present study with amphetamine as the drug of abuse. Drug users who were starting their sentences in prison participated in the study. Urine specimens were collected 1 to 5 times per day. Screening was performed by EMIT d.a.u. (cutoff, 0.30 microgram/mL) and EMIT II (cutoff, 1.00 microgram/mL), and confirmation was performed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Creatinine and pH were recorded. Amphetamine was demonstrated in seven subjects. The highest concentration was 135 micrograms/mL. The last positive-screened specimen was observed by EMIT d.a.u. after almost 9 days of imprisonment and by EMIT II after 3 days. Large concentration differences could be found between consecutive specimens, accompanied by considerable differences in creatinine and pH. The individual curves were generally smoother after creatinine correction of concentrations. As expected, urinary pH was observed to influence the excretion.

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Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, and hydroxyamphetamine derivatives in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and its relation to CYP2D6 phenotype of drug users

Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, and hydroxyamphetamine derivatives in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and its relation to CYP2D6 phenotype of drug users / Elías Miranda-G, Monserrat Sordo, Ana María Serrano Salazar, Claudia Contreras, Leoncio Bautista, Aurora E Rojas García, Patricia Ostrosky-Wegman. - (Journal of Analytical Toxicology 31 (2007) 1 (January/February); p. 31-36). - PMID: 17389081. - DOI:10.1093/jat/31.1.31 ___________________________________________________ Abstract Amphetamine, a CYP2D6 substrate, is widely used by truck drivers, and the extent to which different people metabolize the drug has only been determined in an isolated or reduced number of samples. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method is implemented to simultaneously determine amphetamine, methamphetamine, and hydroxyamphetamine in the urine of drug users. This method is a useful contribution to a well-established field. The main improvements are the use of liquid-liquid extraction, the trapping of the amphetamines as their hydrochloride salt, as a solution to the volatility of these analytes, and its application to assess the CYP2D6 metabolic phenotype of amphetamine users, which is innovative. Calibration curves ranged from 125 to 1000 ng/mL and had an r(2) greater than 0.99. The validation data (precision, accuracy, and recovery) shows the reproducibility and selectiveness of the method. The method is applied to determine the metabolic ratio (MR) in 121 urine specimens of federal highway drivers who underwent random mandatory roadside testing for drugs. The statistical analysis of the MR shows the presence of three different groups, which according to the established groups for CYP2D6 and the amount of the drug metabolized, are classified into extensive metabolizers (EM), intermediate metabolizers (IM), and poor metabolizers (PM). The biological consequences of these differences in amphetamine metabolism, such as impaired driving, a risk to develop Parkinson's disease, or an addiction, need to be further studied.

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“Brain-Doping,” Is It a Real Threat?

“Brain-Doping,” Is It a Real Threat? / Darías Holgado, Miguel A. Vadillo, Daniel Sanabria. - (Frontiers in Physiology 10 (2019) 483 (24 April); p. 1-2). - PMCID: PMC6491773. - PMID: 31068840. - DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00483 ___________________________________________________ Abstract: Since the term “Neurodoping” was introduced, the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has gained popularity in Sports Science within a short space of time, based on the same straightforward logic: if exercise is to some extent determined by brain activity, then stimulating brain areas related to exercise should improve physical and sport performance. In fact, companies like Halo Sport claim that their “do-it-yourself” tDCS device has ergogenic effects and can increase sport and exercise performance. In a recent review in Frontiers in Physiology, Angius et al. suggested that tDCS might have a positive effect on exercise capacity, although the mechanisms of that potential benefit were unknown. However, the expectations derived from those initial studies showing tDCS as an effective technique to increase exercise performance or reduce rate of perceived exertion (RPE), have left room for many others that do not seem to support the effectiveness of tDCS in the Sports science.

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Anabolic-androgenic Steroid Use Among Gynecomastia Patients: Prevalence and Relevance to Surgical Management

Anabolic-androgenic Steroid Use Among Gynecomastia Patients : Prevalence and Relevance to Surgical Management / Miliana Vojvodic, Fang Xu, Runting Cai, Mélissa Roy, J. Fielding. - (Annals of Plastic Surgery (2019) 1 April). - PMID: 31021838. - DOI: 10.1097/SAP.0000000000001850 _________________________________________________ Abstract BACKGROUND: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely implicated in gynecomastia development. Surgery is the definitive treatment for cases persisting after cessation of AAS use. Currently, the relevance of AAS use to the surgical approach of gynecomastia has not been well explored. This study aims to compare patient characteristics, surgical outcomes, and surgical management of gynecomastia correction in AAS users versus nonusers. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed with patients who underwent bilateral gynecomastia reduction surgery between January 2005 and August 2015 by a single surgeon at an academic hospital. Demographic data, AAS usage details, operative documentation, and follow-up outcomes were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 964 cases were reviewed. Eleven percent (n = 105) of the patients had a history of AAS use. Compared with non-AAS users, AAS users were older at time of gynecomastia onset (15 years vs 13 years, P < 0.001) and surgery (28 years vs 25 years, P < 0.001). The AAS users had higher body mass index (27.3 kg/m vs 25.7 kg/m, P < 0.001) and a greater proportion of patients self-identified as bodybuilders (40.0% vs 22.4%, P = 0.002). Although no difference was found in the excised bilateral mastectomy volume (92.1 cm vs 76.4 cm, P = 0.20), The AAS users had significantly less lipoaspirate fat volume (250 mL vs 300 mL, P = 0.005). No difference was found in total complication rates. However, AAS users had significantly more revision mastectomy surgeries (3.8% vs 1.1%; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The unique breast composition of AAS users necessitates a surgical approach with meticulous intraoperative hemostasis and careful glandular excision to minimize recurrence and achieve comparable low complication rates.

ADAK 2019 ADAK vs Arnold Ragos Sanya

In December 2018 the Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya (ADAK) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the bodybuilder Arnold Ragos Sany after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Cannabis. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered. The Athlete filed a statement in his defence and waived his right to be heard for the Judiciary Office of the Kenya Sports Disputes Tribunal. In his submissions the Athlete gave a prompt admission, accepted the test result, denied the intentional use and claimed that he was unaware that the substance was prohibited. The Panel holds that the Athlete was duly notified, had waived his right to be heard, admitted the violation, but failed to explain under what circumstances he took the Cannabis. Without grounds for a reduced sanction the Judiciary Office of the Kenya Sports Disputes Tribunal decides on 28 March 2019 to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 11 December 2018.

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ADAK 2018 ADAK vs Caroline Jepkurui Yatich

In June 2018 the Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya (ADAK) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete Caroline Jepkurui Yatich after her sample tested positive for the prohibited substance 19-norandrosterone (Nandrolone). After notification a provisional suspension was ordered while the Athlete failed to respond to any communcation from ADAK or her council. The Panel deems that the Athlete has admitted the violation and accepted the consequences due to her lack of response and behavior. As a result she failed to show how the prohibited substance entered her system nor that the violation was not intentional. The Panel holds that the test result showed the presence of a prohibited substance and accordingly that the Athlete committed an anti-doping rule violation. The Panel finds it evident that the Athlete deliberately sought for and used the prohibited substance. Therefore the Judiciary Office of the Kenya Sports Disputes Tribunal decides on 28 March 2019 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the sample collection, i.e. 4 November 2017.

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ADAK 2018 ADAK vs Isaac Kibet Chebuyo

In February 2018 the Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya (ADAK) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete Isaac Kibet Chebuyo after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Prednisolone. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered, the Athlete filed a statement in his defence and he did not attend the hearing of the Judiciary Office of the Sports Disputes Tribunal. In his submission the Athlete gave a prompt admission and argued that the violation was not intentional while he was unaware that Prednisolone was a prohibited substance. He explained that for his breathing problems he had purchased at a pharmacy this medication and had used this until the day before the competition. The Panel deems that the violation was not intentional and considers that the Athlete gave a prompt admission but failed to mention his medication on the Doping Control Form nor did he apply for a TUE. Therefore the Judiciary Office of the Kenya Sports Disputes Tribunal decides on 21 March 2019 to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 12 February 2018.

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ADAK 2017 ADAK vs Irene Jeptoo Kipchumba

In September 2017 the Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya (ADAK) has reported an anti-doping rule violation against the Athlete Irene Jeptoo Kipchumba after her sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Prednisolone. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete filed a statement in her defence. She failed herafter to respond to the communications of ADAK and her counsel nor did she attend the hearing of the Judiciary Office of the Sports Disputes Tribunal. In her submission the Athlete admitted the violation and explained with evidence that on arrival in China she had a leg swelling and had purchased a Chinese medication in a pharmacy which was probably the source of the positive test. The Panel observes that the Athlete failed to mention her medication on the Doping Control Form and demonstrated a lack of cooperation in this case. In spite of this the Panel deems that she proved on the balance of probability the source of the prohibited substance and that the violation was not intentional. Therefore the Judiciary Office of the Kenya Sports Disputes Tribunal decides on 28 March 2019 to impose a 2 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the provisional suspension, i.e. on 22 September 2017.

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