Welcome

Welcome to Doping.nl, the Anti-Doping Knowledge Center.
This site has been established to host information about doping in the broadest sense of the word, and about doping prevention.

Initiator
The Anti-Doping Authority Netherlands (the Dutch Doping Authority for short) established this site and maintains it. The Doping Authority was founded in 1989 and it is one of the oldest NADOs in the world. Doping.nl was developed with financial support from the Dutch Ministry for Health, Welfare and Sport.

Goals
This website  was established because of the importance that the Doping Authority and the Ministry attach to the dissemination of information relevant to doping prevention. Disclosing and supplying relevant information is one of the cornerstones in the fight against doping in sport. However, in practice, a significant amount of information is still not available, or only available to a limited group of users. We therefore decided to bring together all the relevant information in a single site: Doping.nl.

Activities
The Doping Authority aims to supply as much information through this website as possible on an ongoing basis. The information will be varied but will focus primarily on: WADA documents like the World Anti-Doping Code, the International Standards like the Prohibited List, Doping Regulations, scientific articles and abstracts, decisions by disciplinary bodies (mainly CAS decisions).As well as making documents available, the Doping Authority aims to supply searchable documents when possible, and to add relevant keywords to ensure easy access.
In the future, Doping.nl will also become a digital archive containing older information that is no longer available elsewhere.

Target readers
This site has been designed for use by anti-doping professionals such as National Anti-Doping Organisations and International Federations but also for students, journalists and other people interested in the subject.

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More information explaining how to use this website can be found under "help".

Recently added documents More »

WADA - COVID-19: Athlete Q&A - Version 2

COVID-19 : Athlete Q&A / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2020 _________________________________________________ The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has published a Question and Answer (Q&A) document related to anti-doping and COVID-19, which is an update to the document that the Agency published on 23 March 2020. Once again, it was developed in consultation with WADA’s Athlete Committee. The updated Q&A covers matters such as: - Testing during COVID-19 - Minimizing the risk of contracting or transmitting the virus - Filing of whereabouts information - Validating Therapeutic Use Exemptions - Maintaining the integrity of the global anti-doping system - Refusing to comply with testers at this time - Confidence in the anti-doping system WADA will continue to liaise with athletes and Anti-Doping Organizations in the interest of publishing updates regarding the Agency’s response to COVID-19 as the situation evolves.

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iNADO Update #2020-05

iNADO Update (2020) 5 (25 Mai) Institute of National Anti-Doping Organisations (iNADO) ____________________________________________________ Contents: From the iNADO Community - A New Era for Sports Integrity in Australia - Upcoming Webinar - Anti-Doping Switzerland to expand Investigative Activities - Opinion: A Safe and Clean Return to Sport after Covid-19 Testing - Testing during Covid-19: Unusual Challenges call for unusual Measures - How to collect Evidence in I&I: A Summary of Got Ethics Webinar - Informed Sport: Providing a harmonised Approach to Supplements Testing Research - The Implementation and Effect of the Athlete Biological Passport WADA - 2021 Code Implementation Support Programme goes Online - Updated Covid-19 Guidelines for Anti-Doping Organisations - WADA opens Nomination Process for 2021 Standing Committee Member Vacancies Sport and National Anti-Doping Rules - FEI Consultation to adapt Anti-Doping Rules - Milestone for Anti-Doping Law in Germany - New at the Anti-Doping Knowledge Center

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Anabolic Steroids: Dependence and Complications of Chronic Use

Anabolic Steroids : Dependence and Complications of Chronic Use / Gianluca Quaglio, Anna Fornasiero, Paolo Mezzelani, Stefano Moreschini, Fabio Lugoboni, Alessandro Lechi. - (Internal and emergency medicine 4 (2009) 4 (August); p. 289-296). - PMID: 19468827. - DOI: 10.1007/s11739-009-0260-5 _________________________________________________ Abstract Anabolic steroids are widely used for doping, in professional and domestic sports. The mechanism of action is not completely understood. It may differ somewhat depending on the specific molecule due to structural differences that influence the specificity of binding with steroid receptors. When used by athletes in training, they can improve performance to levels that cannot be attained by almost any combination of sophisticated nonchemical support by modern sport science. The severity of the undesired effects of anabolic steroids depends on a variety of factors, from the type and combination of them, the dose and duration of administration, as well as the gender of the person taking the drug. Younger individuals and women show greater effects caused by anabolic steroids in terms of performance, but are also at greater risk of side effects. This paper presents a review of the literature concerning the major adverse effects of anabolic steroids, focusing the attention on possible situations of addiction from this category of drugs.

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Effects of exercise on lipid parameters of normal male subjects, with and without using power enhancing drugs

Effects of exercise on lipid parameters of normal male subjects, with and without using power enhancing drugs / Faizan Mirza, Sadaf Ahmed. - (Pharma Innovation Journal 3 (2014) 10 (1 December); p. 64-68). ___________________________________________________ Abstract Exercising is largely believed to reduce the chances of cardiovascular disorders. Many people opt for fatburning workouts to achieve a lean physique while others aim at getting a well-muscled body. The latter being a long and tiring process, pushes many people to opt for various power enhancing drugs, for boosting their athletic endurance and increasing the muscle bulk. We evaluated and compared the effects these drugs have had on, lipid parameters of male subjects. Peripheral blood samples were tested for levels of Total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins, triglycerides and very low density lipoproteins. The results showed that drugs exerted a profound effect on all lipid parameters, suggesting that users are prone to various cardiovascular risks. It is suggested that the widespread usage of such drugs should be discouraged among the youth.

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Evolution of serum lipids in two male bodybuilders using anabolic steroids

Evolution of serum lipids in two male bodybuilders using anabolic steroids / Francisco Lajarin, Rogelio Zaragozá, Isabel Tovar, Pedro Martinez-Hernandez. - (Clinical Chemistry 42 (1996) 6 (June); p. 970-972). - PMID: 8665691 ___________________________________________________ Abstract We followed weekly the evolution of serum lipid concentrations in two bodybuilders undergoing a cycle of treatment with anabolic steroids. These drugs caused maximum depression of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations by 69.1% in the fifth week after the beginning of the cycle for subject 1, and by 72.4% in the fourth week for subject 2. Maximum increases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were 144% and 156%, respectively. Total cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B were highly increased with anabolic steroid use. We also saw depression of apo A-I by 84% and 91%, and lipoprotein(a) decreased to undetectable amounts in both cases. These effects were reversed 10 weeks after the end of the steroid cycle in subject 1, but subject 2 still presented abnormal concentrations of serum lipids 13 weeks after drug cessation. The periods until reversibility of anabolic steroid effects on lipids were longer than those reported in previous studies.

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Drug‐Induced Liver Injury by Selective Androgenic Receptor Modulators

Drug‐Induced Liver Injury by Selective Androgenic Receptor Modulators / Joan Ericka Flores, Shivakumar Chitturi, Sarah Walker. - (Hepatology Communications 4 (2020) 3 (March) ; p. 450-452). - DOI: 10.1002/hep4.1456. - PMCID: PMC7049679. - PMID: 32140660 ___________________________________________________ Abstract Selective androgenic receptor modulators (SARMs) have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration but they are heavily promoted as alternatives to androgenic anabolic steroids. We present two cases of liver injury associated with SARMs.

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Is heptaminol a (major) metabolite of octodrine?

Is heptaminol a (major) metabolite of octodrine? / Josef Dib, Christina Bosse, Maria Tsivou, Anna‐M. Glatt, Thomas Geisendorfer, Hans Geyer, Günter Gmeiner, Gerd Sigmund, Mario Thevis. - (Drug Testing and Analysis 11 (2019) 11-12 (November-December); p. 1761-1763). - Special Issue: 37th Cologne workshop: Advances in sports drug testing. - PMID: 31763761. - DOI: 10.1002/dta.2737 ___________________________________________________ Abstract: In 2018, two adverse analytical findings (AAFs) were reported concerning the specified stimulant heptaminol in the context of routine doping controls by a World Anti‐Doping Agency (WADA)‐accredited laboratory. In the course of inquests into these cases, both affected athletes declared the use of nutritional supplements, advertised as fat‐burner and pre‐workout products. These supplements did not list heptaminol as an ingredient on the respective product labels, and chromatographic‐mass spectrometric analyses confirmed the absence of heptaminol. However, both supplements declared the ingredient 2‐aminoisoheptane, a frequently observed (whilst incorrect) synonym for octodrine.

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ADAPI 2019 Tamanna Singal vs INADA - Appeal

On 30 September 2019 the Anti-Doping Disciplinary Panel of India (ADDPI) decided to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the minor weightlifter Tamanna Singal after her sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Metenolone. Hereafter the Athlete appealed the ADDAPI decision with the Anti-Doping Appeal Panel of India and requested for a reduced sanction. The Appeal Panel finds that the presence of a prohibited substance had been established in the Athlete's sample and accordingly that she committed an anti-doping rule violation. The Appeal Panel established that the Athlete acknowledged the use of protein drinks and that her coach had administered injections before the competitions while she failed to mention this on the Doping Control Form. Since there are no grounds for a reduced sanction the Appeal Panel decides on 13 March 2020 to dismiss the Athlete's appeal and to uphold the decision of 30 September 2019.

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IMMAF 2017 IMMAF vs Douw Eksteen

In February 2017 the International Mixed Martial Arts Federation (IMMAF) reported an anti-doping rule violation against the South African Athlete Douw Eksteen after his sample tested positive for the prohibited substance Stanozolol. After notification a provisional suspension was ordered and the Athlete failed to respond to the IMMAF communications. Since he failed to respond the Athlete is deemed to have accepted the test result and admitted the anti-doping rule violation. Therefore the IMMAF decides on 18 August 2017 to impose a 4 year period of ineligibility on the Athlete starting on the date of the sample collection, i.e. on 3 September 2016.

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IBSF 2018 IBSF vs Nadezhda Sergeeva - Termination of proceedings

Media Release on the termination of the doping proceeding before the CAS ADD regarding Nadezhda Sergeeva, RUS. Related case: CAS OG_AD_18_05 IOC & FIBT vs Nadezhda Sergeeva - Partial Award February 24, 2018 _________________________________________________ On 24 February 2018, the Anti-Doping Division of the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS ADD) that was created for the PyeongChang Olympic Winter Games disqualified the Russian bobsleigh athlete Nadezhda Sergeeva, who participated as Olympic Athlete from Russia (OAR), following her positive out-of-competition test for Trimetazidine, a non-specified substance (Metabolic Modulator prohibited under S4.5.5.4 of the 2018 WADA Prohibited List), as requested by the IOC. It also imposed a provisional suspension as requested by the International Bobsleigh and Skeleton Federation (IBSF), pending a final decision on her violation. Immediately after the PyeongChang Olympic Winter Games, the IBSF applied to the CAS ADD to impose a period of ineligibility on the Athlete also for the period after the Olympic Games. During the course of the CAS ADD proceedings between Nadezhda Sergeeva and the IBSF, the Athlete accepted both the Adverse Analytical Finding and the provisional suspension. The Athlete demonstrated however that the Adverse Analytical Finding of the very low concentration of the prohibited substance (as quantified by the Olympic doping laboratory in Seoul) was likely to have been caused by an unsuspicious contaminated supplement which she had obtained from an official and supposedly reliable source and which had been prescribed by the team doctor. The likely contamination of the supplement was supported inter alia by the findings of an independent WADA-accredited laboratory which had been mandated by the IBSF to double-check the findings of the laboratory mandated by the Athlete. On 5 October 2018, the provisional suspension was lifted by the CAS ADD in accordance with IBSF Rule 7.9.3.1, as it was undisputed between the parties to the procedure that the Athlete’s ADRV likely resulted from a contaminated product. Meanwhile, the Athlete also accepted the period of ineligibility of 8 months requested by the IBSF. Based on this agreement, the file was removed from the docket of the CAS ADD. The period of provisional suspension already served by the Athlete shall be deducted from the otherwise applicable period of ineligibility and therefore ends on midnight of 22 October 2018. The CAS ADD is adjudicating all alleged anti-doping rule violations, which have been disclosed at the Olympic Games, as a first instance. Its decisions are subject to appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS).

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