Tramadol Does Not Improve Performance or Impair Motor Function in Trained Cyclists / Jacob Bejder, Andreas Breenfeldt Andersen, Thomas Christian Bonne, Jacob Feder Piil, Linn Camilla Hauan Hagen, Yvette Dehnes, Kasper Hvid Eibye, Lars Nybo, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg. - (Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (2019, 27 November)). - PMID: 31809408. - DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002217 ___________________________________________________ Abstract Purpose: To investigate the hypothesis that a therapeutic oral dose of Tramadol improves cycling time trial performance and compromises motor-cognitive performance in highly trained cyclists. Methods: Following two familiarization trials, 16 highly trained cyclists completed a preloaded time trial (1 hour at 60 % of peak power followed by a 15 km time trial) after ingestion of 100 mg Tramadol or placebo in a double-blind placebo-controlled counterbalanced cross-over design separated by at least 4 days wash-out. Visuo-motor tracking and math tasks were completed during the preload (n=10) to evaluate effects on cognition and fine motor performance. Results: Time trial mean power output (298±42 W vs. 294±44 W) and performance (1474±77 s vs. 1483±85 s) were similar with Tramadol and placebo treatment, respectively. In addition, there were no differences in perceived exertion, reported pain, blood pH, lactate or HCO3 concentrations across trials. Heart rate was higher (P<0.001) during the Tramadol time trial (171±8 bpm) compared to placebo (167±9 bpm). None of the combined motor-cognitive tasks were impaired by Tramadol ingestion, in fact fine motor performance was slightly improved (P<0.05) in the Tramadol trial compared to placebo.In highly trained cyclists, ingestion of 100 mg Tramadol does not improve performance in a 15 km cycling time trial that was completed after a one hour preload at 60 % peak power. Additionally, a therapeutic dose of Tramadol does not compromise complex motor-cognitive or simple fine motor performances.
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This site has been established to host information about doping in the broadest sense of the word, and about doping prevention.
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Medication Information and Supply Behaviours in Elite and Developing Athletes / Danae Perry, Bronte Librizzi, Lily Ngu, Michael Ricciardello, Amy Street, Rhonda Clifford, Carmel Goodman, Peter Peeling, Sandra M. Salter. - (Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport (2020, 16 January)). - PMID: 32044233. - DOI: 10.1016/j.jsams.2019.12.026 _________________________________________________ Abstract Objectives To investigate the behaviours of elite and developing athletes in obtaining medications and medication information, and to identify the role of pharmacists in athlete care. Design Cross-sectional survey. Methods An electronic, 39-item questionnaire was developed, piloted and distributed to elite and developing athletes aged 18 years and above at a state-based sporting institute. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics and free text comments were analysed using an inductive reasoning approach. Results A total of 98 responses were analysed. Ninety (n = 90/98, 91.84%) participants obtained medications in the six months prior to survey completion. Pharmacies were the most common source of both prescription (n = 67/69, 97.10%) and non-prescription medications (n = 64/75, 85.33%). Forty-five (n = 45/98, 45.92%) participants also attended pharmacies when they had a minor ailment. Sixty-two (n = 62/98, 63.27%) participants ‘sometimes’ consulted pharmacists for medication information. Only 11 (n = 11/98, 11.22%) knew, according to their sporting institute medication policy, that athletes were required to consult a medical practitioner before taking anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving or sleep-inducing medications. Forty (n = 40/98, 40.82%) participants believed pharmacists could play a role in their medication management. Conclusions Many elite and developing athletes visited pharmacies for medication supply and treatment of minor ailments. Doping regulatory agency websites were the most commonly used and trusted sources for medication information, although some athletes believed pharmacists could also contribute to their medication management. Future research should consider whether pharmacists are ready for a role in sports pharmacy.
Association Between Implementation of the Athlete Biological Passport and Female Elite Runners' Performance
Association Between Implementation of the Athlete Biological Passport and Female Elite Runners' Performance / Sergei Iljukov, Jukka-Pekka Kauppi, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Juha E. Peltonen, Yorck O. Schumacher. - (International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance (2020, 20 February); p. 1-6). - PMID: 32084627 - DOI: 10.1123/ijspp.2019-0643 ___________________________________________________ Abstract The purpose of this research was to evaluate the performances of female middle- and long-distance runners before and after the implementation of a new antidoping strategy (the Athlete Biological Passport [ABP]) in a country accused of systematic doping. A retrospective analysis of the results of Russian National Championships from 2008 to 2017 was performed. The 8 best female performances for the 800-m, 1500-m, 3000-m steeplechase, 5000-m, and 10,000-m events from the semifinals and finals were analyzed. The yearly number of athletes fulfilling standard qualifications for international competitions was also evaluated. Overall, numbers of athletes banned for doping in 2008-2017 were calculated. As a result, 4 events (800, 1500, 5000 [all P < .001], and 10,000 m [P < .01]) out of 5 showed statistically significant deterioration in the performances when comparing before and after the introduction of the ABP. The 3000-m steeplechase was the only event that did not show statistically significant change. The highest relative decrease in the number of runners who met standard qualification for international competition was for the 5000-m event (46%), followed by 1500-m (42%), 800-m (38%), 10,000-m (17%), and 3000-m steeplechase (1%). In conclusion, implementation of the ABP was followed by a significant reduction in the performance of female runners in a country accused of systematic doping. It can be reasonably speculated that more stringent antidoping testing, more specifically the introduction of the ABP, is a key reason for this reduction.
Therapeutic Use Exemptions : the World Anti-Doping Code International Standard / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2018. - (International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions (ISTUE) effective on 1 January 2019) ________________________________________________ The International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions was first adopted in 2004 and came into effect 1 January 2005. Further revisions were made in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2015, and 2018. The enclosed ISTUE incorporates revisions approved by the WADA Executive Committee on 20 September 2018. It will come into effect on 1 January 2019. The Agency has revised certain templates relating to other Standards that Anti-Doping Organizations (ADOs) may use in conducting their anti-doping program activities. Most templates sit at the model guidelines level of the World Anti-Doping Program. These guidelines are not mandatory but offer technical guidance to ADOs in the implementation of their programs. The Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) application form template, which includes the “athlete’s declaration”, is currently an annex to the ISTUE and therefore any changes made to it require approval from the ExCo. In the interest of ensuring that only key changes to International Standards are put forward for ExCo approval moving forward, the TUE application form has now been removed as an annex to the ISTUE and placed at the model guidelines level along with other guidance tools for ADOs. Please note below the summary of changes to the revised ISTUE: 1. Page 1 has been updated to 2019 version 2. Annex 2 - TUE application form template has been removed - Article 6.1 of the ISTUE stipulates that the TUE application form must be based on WADA’s template. It may be modified by ADOs to include additional requests for information, but no sections or items may be removed. 3. Minor change under Article 6.1 where it is mentioned that the template will be available on the WADA website 4. The table of contents has been modified to reflect the removal of the TUE application form template
World Anti-Doping Code International Standard for Laboratories / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2019. - (International Standard for Laboratories (ISL), version 10.0, in force 1 November 2019) The International Standard for Laboratories first came into effect in November 2002. Further revisions were made after that date. The enclosed International Standard for Laboratories was approved by the WADA Executive Committee on 15 May 2019. The effective date of ISL version 10.0 is 1 November 2019. The official text of the ISL shall be maintained by WADA and shall be published in English and French. In the event of any conflict between the English and French versions, the English version shall prevail. The modifications in this new version of the ISL are substantial and include: - Important modifications and updates to Section 1 (Introduction) regarding the description of the different WADA laboratory standards; - Revisions to the section of ISL definitions to include new metrological and method validation terms; - Important modifications and updates to Section 4 (Process and Requirements for WADA laboratory accreditation) in regard to, for example, the different stages of the accreditation process, laboratory independence, laboratory disciplinary processes and the consequences of a laboratory suspension or revocation; as well as, the criteria for approval of a laboratory for Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) blood testing; - A new Section 5 (Analysis of Samples), in which the previous Sections 5 (Analysis in Urine) and 6 (Analysis in Blood) have been merged. The updated structure of Section 5 follows the newly approved ISO/IEC 17025:2017 standard, and includes important updates on sample storage and further analysis, method validation requirements, etc.; - Updates to Annex A – in which the External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) has been split into two new Sections: Section 6 (EQAS Program) and Section 7 (Laboratory Performance Evaluation), and requirements have been thoroughly revised; and - The addition of a new Annex B: Procedural Rules for the Disciplinary Committee of the ISL, whereas the revised ISL Code of Ethics remains as Annex A.
Testing and Investigations : World Anti-Doping Code International standard / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2019. - (International Standard Testing and Investigations (ISTI) effective on 1 March 2020) _________________________________________________ The International Standard for Testing (IST) was first adopted in 2003 and came into effect 1 January 2004. It was subsequently amended five times, the first time effective 1 January 2009, the second time effective 1 January 2011, the third time when the ISTI, renamed the International Standard for Testing and Investigations (ISTI), came into effect on 1 January 2015, the fourth time effective January 2017, the fifth time effective March 2019 and the sixth time effective March 2020. The revisions to the ISTI, which come into force on 1 March 2020, are specifically related to the requirement for urine samples to meet a suitable specific gravity for analysis. As outlined in the revised ISTI, starting on 1 March 2020, the minimum volume of urine required for analysis will remain at 90ml; however, if an athlete can provide 150ml or more of urine, the minimum specific gravity measurement (using a refractometer) will be lowered to 1.003 or above instead of the current 1.005 or above. If the athlete provides a sample with a volume greater than 90ml but less than 150ml, the current specific gravity measurement of 1.005 (using a refractometer) will remain applicable. Athletes who provide a sample with a specific gravity measurement lower than the above measurements will be required to continue to provide a sample until they reach a suitable specific gravity measurement. These revisions, which were endorsed by WADA’s Laboratory Expert Group, recognize significant enhancements in the sensitivity of laboratory analytical methods made over the past 20 years and will reduce the amount of time some athletes spend in doping control stations, making the process more athlete-friendly, while presenting a potential saving in resources for Anti-Doping Organizations. It is also important to note that these revisions to the specific gravity measurement will be applied during the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games.
Testing and Investigations : World Anti-Doping Code International standard / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2018. - (International Standard Testing and Investigations (ISTI) effective on 1 March 2019) _________________________________________________ The International Standard for Testing (IST) was first adopted in 2003 and came into effect 1 January 2004. It was subsequently amended five times, the first time effective 1 January 2009, the second time effective 1 January 2011, the third time when the ISTI, renamed the International Standard for Testing and Investigations (ISTI), came into effect on 1 January 2015 the fourthtime effective January 2017 and the fifth time effective March 2019. There are two main areas of amendment to the ISTI, which are as follows: 1. Article 6.3.4 - Sample Collection Equipment Following the issues that the anti-doping community faced earlier this year with sample collection equipment, WADA appointed a small ad-hoc working group to propose enhanced criteria within the ISTI for sample collection equipment. The proposed criteria were first circulated to WADA stakeholders in June 2018 as part of the first phase of the review process for the International Standards connected to the 2021 Code Review Process; and, further refinements were made as a result. Anti-Doping Organizations remain responsible for ensuring that the equipment they use meets the required criteria contained within Article 6.3.4 of the ISTI. 1. Annex L - Results Management Requirements and Procedures for the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) Following a legal review of the procedures for the ABP; a revised Technical Document for Endogenous Anabolic Androgenic Steroids; and, development of a new Technical Document for Athlete Passport Management Units, a number of amendments were made to Annex L - Results Management Requirements and Procedures for the ABP. We are pleased to provide the redline and clean versions of the revised ISTI; and, would ask you to note that the revised version will be circulated to stakeholders as part of the second review phase of the International Standards that will be carried out from 10 December 2018 to March 2019. Thereafter, another revised version will be submitted for WADA ExCo approval at the World Conference on Doping in Sport, which will be held in Katowice, Poland in November 2019; after which, the revised 2021 Code and Standards will take effect on 1 January 2021.
WADA - Compliance Strategy / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2020
Compliance Annual Report 2019 / World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). - Montreal : WADA, 2020 _________________________________________________ In the 26-page Report, the key findings of Signatory compliance monitoring for 2019 include the following: - WADA operated its compliance activities under the International Standard for Code Compliance by Signatories (ISCCS) and the accompanying Prioritization Policy for its first full year following its coming into force in April 2018. - Significant, high-profile, WADA-led investigations have contributed to a number of compliance activities by WADA departments, Standing Committees and governing bodies. In particular, the Russian investigation has required an unprecedented amount of human and financial resources. - WADA now has at its disposal a number of effective and robust compliance monitoring programs. In 2019, WADA launched three new compliance monitoring programs – the Major Event Organization (MEO) Code Compliance Questionnaire (CCQ), the Continuous Monitoring Program, and the Desk Audit Program. - Over 3,000 corrective actions were implemented by Signatories in 2019 with testing identified as the main source of non-conformities. Strategies have been developed to assist Signatories, including through a number of easy to use templates and checklists that are available on WADA’s Anti-Doping e-Learning platform (ADeL). - Unsurprisingly, a clear link between improving the quality of testing programs and financial resources has been identified. A better understanding of costs associated with quality testing programs is required to assist Signatories to increase their budgets and resources. - The creation of the International Testing Agency (ITA) – which is working with a growing number of IFs – and the implementation of partnerships between developed and developing NADOs have significantly contributed to the compliance of the relevant Signatories’ activities. The purpose of the Report is, in particular, to: - Provide a clear and integrated report outlining the achievements and challenges of the Compliance Monitoring Program, measuring objectives against key performance indicators through quantitative and qualitative analysis including areas for improvement. - Detail the interpretation and implications of the findings, trends and lessons learned over time towards ADO’s compliance maturity as defined in the Compliance Strategy. - Identify opportunities for continual improvement that will be the foundation for the following year’s Compliance Annual Plan. This cycle will be repeated annually as WADA seeks to develop compliance maturity through continual improvement of its own compliance activities and the global anti-doping system.
Report of the Independent Observers : 2019 Pan American Games, Lima, Perú / Independent Observer Team. - Montreal : World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), 2020